The exception principle states that management should deal only with the exceptions--the cases where the performance of their subordinates does not meet standards. This is known as the exception principle, and was defined by Henri Fayol. The " span of control" also defined by Favol is the principle which states that there is a limit to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise. 15. 16. Mary Parker Follett - was a classical management theorist in the 1920's that focused on how managers resolve conflicts. She was also one of the pioneers of Scientific Management who advocated a collaborative approach to problem solving that
emphasized compromise in the workplace. She helped to make the scientific approach to the improvement of worker efficiency accepted throughout industry in the US. 17. 18. ACCEPTANCE THEORY OF AUTHORITY states that authority is ultimately granted by the subordinates. 19. 20. Chester Barnard – informal organization – cliques get things done, common purpose to willingness to cooperate. Four factors: 1. employees must understand the communication 2. accept communication as being consistent with orgs purposes 3. their actions will be consistent with the needs and desires of other employees 4. employees mentally and physically able to carry out the orders Barnard saw organizations in terms of the systems approach as an open system --they are in interaction with the environment, and are affected by the organization. Barnard developed the Acceptance Theory of Authority , which states that a manger's authority only exists when it has been accepted by the person it is being exercised on. Chester Barnard, in his book The Functions of the Executive , defined the ideas which make up the Acceptance Theory of Authority. It basically means that to some extent, until an employee accepts a manager's authority over him, the manager has no authority over that employee. 21. 22. SYSTEMS APPROACH - looks at organizations in terms of its parts, and how they interact with each other and the environment. This is known as the systems approach, or systems theory. An organization is divided into sub- systems, and either classifies as an open system , which interacts with its environment or a closed system , which is completely separated from the rest of the world. Theorists who believe in the systems approach typically believe that organizations are open systems which affect and are affected by their environment--the organization really includes not only the employees, but the customers, suppliers, and everyone else who affect or are affected by the organization. The systems approach sees an organization as a system of inputs, transformations, and outputs. This is another way to define the systems theory of management.
- Winter '12
- Management, Henri Fayol, scientific management