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however, the researchers chose to test this in order to determine the best results to the study. Researchers found by conducting this study that fMR1 genes are important because the constant mutations that can occur within this gene can ultimately determine whether a child will develop 21
GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERany developmental delays therefore emphasizing that Fragile X Syndrome gene mutation is important in the understanding of a child developing an Autism Spectrum disorder (Tassone, Choudhary, Tassone, Durbin-Johnson, Hansen, Hertz-Picciotto, & Pessah, 2013). The mouse models from the previous study also tested the fMR1 gene by using their “knockout mouse” model. The model allowed for the mice to replicate the loss of genes that were connected to Fragile X Syndrome with different variations of the gene in order to test its effect on the development of Autism Spectrum disorder. Though investigating this specific gene, it has allowed for the understanding of Fragile X Syndrome as a disorder to become more apart and by looking into these specific genes that affect other developmental delays can ultimately help explain what can occur within a child who develops Autism Spectrum disorder specifically. (Schwartzer, Koenig, & Berman, 2013). Recent genetic studies have been conducted showing that uncommon mutations occur in 10-20 percent of the Autism Spectrum Disorder population. Since there is no specific origin to the mutations that occur, there are many research studies that are continually done to determine the influence that the mutations have on Autism Spectrum Disorder. These specific articles investigate the relationship between head circumferences and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research on head circumferences and Macrocephaly dates all the way back to Leo Kanner’s study in 1943 where close to half of his participants had larger heads and were categorized in what is now known as Autism Spectrum disorder. Macrocephaly is increasingly large head that grows once you are born. It is known from previous research that there is a strong correlation between Macrocephaly and children to end up developing Autism even thoughit is public knowledge that a child with a larger head; is more intelligent than a person with an average size head which fits the definition of Autism Spectrum Disorder occurring to the DSM 22
GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERIV (Froechlich, Cleveland, Torres, Phillips, Cohen, Torigoe, Miller, Fedele, Collins, Smith, Lotspeich, Croen, Ozonoff, Lajonchere, Grether, & Hallmayer, 2012). A child’s head develops at as early as four to six months. One study was conducted looking at the early age detection of a larger brain specifying in 3 different age cohorts being 6-9 months, 12-15 months and 18-24 months through MRI scans to see the development of Autism with infants would have those certain development delays and also children with other developmental delays. The researchers found that extra fluid in the brain has a lot of connections to Autism Spectrum Disorder however;it does not explain the reason for why children with the disorder have larger heads. The results of