1848 revolutions motivated by nationalist ideology

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1848- Revolutions motivated by nationalist ideology spread like wildfire: Further French RevolutionsCharles X- placed on throne after Napoleon; brother of Louis XVIWhite Terror begins: French aristocrats punish those responsible for 1strevolution; remove from office those appointed by NapoleonReturned Nobles Property- issues govt bonds for land payments; increases French debt;
HIST1020- Exam 1Strengthens power of the clergy; favoring catholicismoAnti-Sacrilege Act-outlaws any blasphemy against church or destruction of relics, punishable by deathReinstituted Monarchial Ceremonies- consecration ceremonyJules de Polignac- made Chief Minister; starts war w/ Algeriabegan censoring press; riots begin; flees the countryAbdicated 1830, Aug 2Louis Philippe- republican; father had been beheaded by reign of terror“Bourgeois King”-avoids pomp and lavishes of previous kings; Decline of France’s Economy and working conditions; widening of economic gap; working class struggles- begin rioting againRebellion begins Feb _, 1848French Monarchy Overthrown in Revolution of 1848Elects Louis Napoleon- Bonaparte’s nephew1848 Irish RevolutionNationalism spreads to Ireland; rebellion breaks out 1798, supported by France- efforts crashBritish enacts: Union Act of 1800- united under 1 Parliament (prior Ireland had their own); official religion becomes Church of England, most Irish- Catholic; Potato Blight- (famine) 1845; kills 1/5 of Irish population; sends thousands of Irish to migrate elsewhere, such as America; Young Ireland- rises up in 1840s; blames potato blight on Great BritainNation-journal created by Catholic and Protestant: William Smith O’BrianComes from variety of socioeconomic classes; both Catholics and protestants; often younger people; united under nationalist impulsesPushes for total independence; Britain caught up in fighting French- promotes guerilla actionWilliam Smith O’Brian- leads rebellion, July 1848 in Country of TipperaryoBattle Irish police forces, unsuccessful; rebellion collapsesoMovement doesn’t attract enough peasants or the catholic churchItaly Prior to Unification-8 separate states on Italian peninsula; -Austria controls most of northern and part of central Italy-papal states- independent regions in Italy: Naples, Sicily; financially and politically weak; -since the fall of the Roman empire, Italy and Germany had been disunited lands; Italian Revolutions of 1820 and 1830The Carbonari- leads revolution; “charcoal burners”; primarily nobles, bourgeois; calls for removal of Napoleon; fraternity social club; want constitutional govt for Italy;
HIST1020- Exam 11820 Revolution in Naples- successful; got monarchy to agree to sign constitution; Austria reverses gains made; 1830 Revolts- suppressedCarbonari falls apartNew Nationalist movement:Giuseppe Mazzini (Italy)Formed group- Young Italy- promoted independence from Austrian and Spanish rule and est an Italian national state; unify Italy; popular in the north, middle-

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