Additionally the alternative hypotheses of

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Additionally, the alternative hypotheses of “Immunosurveilance,” and “Antigenic Stimulation,” were discussed, but shown to contradict the results of meta-analysis. However, Sherman’s meta-analysis contained many data points that were contradictory or just presently unexplainable, possibly indicating the interplay of multiple systems and confounding variables. The presence of confounding variables in bladder cancer prediction is supported by Sherman’s results- an equal proportion of positive and inverse relationships of single allergies to bladder cancer was found (Each the conclusion of 4/9 2
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studies of bladder cancer). Unfortunately, these results fail to fit the predictions of any of the proposed hypotheses, since each hypothesis predicts a particular difference in the relationship of allergies to bladder cancer. Also, Sherman’s paper does not posit an exact mechanism or pathway for the Prophylaxis hypothesis to apply to the bladder since no allergy has the effect of emptying the bladder (as opposed to something like itching helping to rid the skin of toxins), leaving the correlations indistinct from causations. The first step in exploring the relationship between bladder cancer and allergies required proof of direct contact with identifiable toxins, and an appropriate (or inappropriate) response or predictable result. Indeed known toxic substances, generally associated with long- term occupational exposure, such as aromatic amines (Talaska, 2003), arsenic (Kurttio, 1999), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) (Silverman et al, 2004), and trihalomethanes, have been shown to directly increase bladder cancer risk (Villaneuva et al, 2004). In fact, large accidental doses to municipalities like water supplies have consistently yielded a crippled population with high rates of multiple cancers including cancer of the bladder (Toledano et al, 2004). Many of the same compounds have been shown to cause allergies, too. These fall under the first category of types of situations where the correlation of allergies and bladder cancer is not readily evident, because the overwhelming amount of toxin leads straight to cancer, leaving little time to develop allergies as a protective response. Next, the ability of carcinogens to be effective during direct exposure was confirmed by an update concerning bladder cancer risk and its relation to nutrition (Brinkman and Zeegers, 2008). The majority of the foods that were found to have the highest anti-cancer potency also happened to be the highest in anti-oxidant contents. Similarly, the foods 3
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indicated as the highest positive-correlation-containing, were known to carry a risk of toxins or infection. This helped to confirm that direct exposure played a role in bladder cancer risk, and that the interaction was occurring topically. The pattern of thought here agrees with Sherman’s hypothesis that directly exposed organs have a higher incidence of inverse correlations.
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  • Fall '10
  • PAULW.SHERMAN
  • bladder cancer

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