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Used in production of cheeseoCame from stomach of calvesoExtract of stomach (rennet) added to milk to make cheeseGene to make chymosin is discoveredoFragment of DNA of calve code for chymosin
oThe fragment can be separated and putted in to yeast cell to churn out chymosin.oTomatoesto be have fresh tasteInhibit enzyme called polygalacturonasein tomato.Polygalacturonase breaks down pectin, which is responsible for texture of tomatoTomato stays firm, can leave in on vine longer -> doesn’t get mushyWasn’t successful, because it didn’t taste betterRise anger towards genetic engineering-In introduction of food, there are many requirements imposed by regulatory agenciesoBiochemical, toxicological, nutritional, allergenicity dataoestimate of dietary exposureoanticipated pattern of useopotential harm to non-target speciesopotential to spread genetic material to other speciesopotential of plant to become a weedoimpact on biodiversityex, brazil nut & soya beanbrazil nutrich in methionine(amino acid needed for animal feed)soya beans (used for animal feed) is low in methionineDNA code for methionine was taken out form brazil nut and added into soya beans. However, this was not marketedoProblem -> allergen in brazil nut was active in modified soya beans5.2.2:-Canolais genetically modifiedo‘Roundup’ resistantSpray the field without killing canolaLess tillageVery energy intensive -> less fuel usedLess herbicide usedRoundup is specific for the weed that would grow in the fieldBetter yieldoGlyphosate doesn’t kill humanThe problem is not toxicity, it is glyphosate resistantRoundup will not be affective on weeds anymore-Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT corn)oProduces protein that is toxic to insect, but not humanoInset the gene into the crop (corn)oCrop (corn) protects itself from insectsoVery effectiveWhen plant is injured by insects, you get rotting, and get infestation by fungiFungi can produce carcinogen (fumonisins)oBT corn has no impact on monarchy butterflyPeople have misperception on genetic engineer (also, potato eample)5.2.3:
-Risks of genetic modification (is it real?)oGilles-Eric Seralini’s research states that mice developed tumor after fed genetic modified food.Seralini’s research was withdrawn from the journal, because the result was not duplicated by anyother reserchers.-Benefits of genetic modificationoSolution to vitamin A deficiency1,000,000 death & 350,000cases of blindnessSignificant amount of beta-carotene can be produced in golden rice to prevent theseGolden riceTake gene from daffodils or corn and insert to riceoThe gene codes for beta-carotene (body’s precursor to vitamin A)oVitamin A found only in animal product, while beta-carotene is also found in plantGolden colouroSolution to iron deficiency anemia2 billion people in world suffer from iron deficiency anemia