Persian is remarkably unchanged since 11th century

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-Persian is remarkably unchanged since 11th century and was written in Arabic script -600s time of tension between polytheistic/nomad values and urban/monotheistic/Jewish values -Lots of Jews Medina and elsewhere on Arab peninsula at this time -Early followers of Mohammed were younger sons of rich families and poor people -Leads to hostility from ruling order (polytheism brings in visitors aka money) -Five pillars of Islam (duty/witness to god, prayer, almsgiving, pilgrimage, Ramadan) -Reinforce sense of commonality while also entrenching some ideas of patriarchy and clan loyalty -Divorce discouraged, incest outlawed -By the time of his death in 632 most of Arabia is united under Islam -For the most part, the Arabs just conquer and replace the elite (no murdering or mass conversion) -Mohammed called for acceptance of Jews and Christians (people of the book) but they had to pay a non-Muslim tax -Zoroastrians burn shit down and then they get tolerance -Iranian elite want to convert to avoid tax and attach themselves to well known Arab families...often changing their names -Ali is fourth Caliph and cousin of Mohammed who marries Fatima...Sunni’s think that he should’ve been first caliph -Abbasid dynasty comes back into power in 700s and moves capital to Damascus...tension between scribes/scholars and Arabs/Persians -Enter golden age...tolerance, converting texts, leaders are scholars -9th century renaissance (converting Greek texts, new ideas) -About the same time we see teaching not coming from caliph but from Qu’ran and Hadith which is interpreted by grumpy scholars -Deterministic, traditional, -Tension between political and religious rule
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-Nearing 800 we start to see local leaders passing down their rule...creating mini-dynasties -Turkish mercenaries for protection...mid 11th century take some control...interior Asia Minor -Sufism...based on abandonment of self and ego and seeking out personal spiritual encounters...poetry -Many who took part in this were executed or persecuted in favor of traditionalism -Sort of pre-Islamic ideals and mysticism mixed with Islam -Sufis are central to spread of Islam to countryside (low literacy) -Saw egotism in ulema (official teaching)...too rule obsessed -End of 12th century...very violent invasions by Mongols -Many massacres and genocides at this time -By 1295 Mongol leader and army converts to Islam (initially having retained paganism) -Ibn Arabi 106 -By mid 14th century we see strong Iranian identity/pride forming -Silk road...danger and trade. Geography of Iran...vulnerability and opportunity Chapter 4 -In 608 there is a massacre by Umayyad regime (Yazid) against Hosein, the grandson of Mohammad through Fatima at Karbala -Important to Shi’a Islam -Party of Ali (favored rule by descendents of Ali, his cousin, or him) -Eventually Shias see themselves as the persecuted minority in Sunni towns -Safavids...discriminate against Sufis -Abbas comes to power...1500s...powerful military using gunpowder weapons -Polygamy leads to fighting between heirs because there are so many -Safavid tradition of keeping heirs in harem -Narratives about impurity of nonbelievers heightened mid 17th century...lots of
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  • Spring '16
  • stephen kinzer
  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah, Pahlavi dynasty

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