Endemic goiter is goiter caused by a deficiency in

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Endemic goiter is goiter caused by a deficiency in iodine consumption (a deficiency of iodine in the diet). The endemic character of the disease is explained because dietary iodine is often a social or cultural condition affecting many people in certain geographical regions. The hypothyroidism caused by deficient iodine ingestion is more frequent in regions far from the coast (since sea food is rich in iodine). Nowadays, the problem is often solved by the obligatory addition of iodine to table salt. As table salt is a widely used condiment, the supply of iodine in the diet is almost always assured by this method. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: goiter 26. What happens to the level of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) in the blood during hypothyroidism? Why is
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the thyroid enlarged in the endemic goiter? When there is a low level of T3 and T4 secretion by the thyroid, TSH secretion by the hypophysis is very stimulated and the level of TSH in the blood level. The increase in the availability of TSH promotes the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Thyroid enlargement is the reaction of a tissue that tries to compensate for the functional deficiency by making the gland increase in size. 27. What are some signs and symptoms found in patients with hyperthyroidism? The hormones made by the thyroid gland stimulate the basal metabolism of the body. In hyperthyroidism, there is an abnormally high production and secretion of T3 and T4 and, as a result, the basal metabolic rate is increased. The signs of this condition may be tachycardia (an abnormally high heart rate), weight loss, excessive heat sensation, excessive sweating, anxiety, etc. One of the typical signs of hyperthyroidism is exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeballs). Generally the patient also presents goiter. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: exophthalmos
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28. What are some signs and symptoms found in patients with hypothyroidism? In hypothyroidism, the production and secretion of T3 and T4 are impaired. Since these thyroid hormones stimulate the basal metabolism of the body (cellular respiration, fatty acid and protein metabolism, etc.), a patient with hypothyroidism may present bradycardia (a low heart rate), a low respiratory rate, excessive tiredness, depression, cold intolerance and weight gain. Hypothyroidism is normally accompanied by goiter (the enlargement of the thyroid in the neck). 29. What is the physiological cause of the syndrome known as cretinism? Cretinism is caused by a chronic deficiency of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) during childhood. Chronic hypothyroidism during childhood may cause retardation and a low stature due to the low basal metabolic rate during a period of life when growth and the development of mental faculty occur.
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