DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

Deep probes have made it possible to trace walls and

Info icon This preview shows pages 9–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Deep probes have made it possible to trace walls and ditches. The Lerici Foundation of Milan and Rome has had
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
great success with this method since its development of the Nistri periscope, first used in 1957 in an Etruscan tomb in the cemetery of Monte Abbatone. The periscope is inserted into the burial chamber and can photograph the walls and contents of the whole tomb. Other modern techniques that have been applied to archaeological prospecting employ electricity and magnetic fields (geophysical prospecting). A method of electrical prospecting had been developed in large-scale oil prospecting: this technique, based on the degree of electrical conductivity present in the soil, began to be used by archaeologists in the late 1940s and has since proved very useful. Magnetic methods of prospecting detect buried features by locating the magnetic disturbances they cause: these were introduced in 1957–58 and use such machines as the proton magnetometer, the proton gradiometer, and the fluxgate gradiometer. An American expedition discovered the site of Sybaris in Sicily by magnetic prospecting. Electromagnetic methods have been in use only since 1962; they employ developments of the concepts used in mine detectors. Instruments such as the pulsed-induction meter and the soil-conductivity meter detect magnetic soil anomalies, but only if the features are fairly shallow. Excavation is the surgical aspect of archaeology: it is surgery of the buried landscape and is carried out with all the skilled craftsmanship that has been built up in the last hundred years since Schliemann and Flinders Petrie. Excavations can be classified, from the point of view of their purpose, as planned, rescue, or accidental. The first cache of the Dead Sea Scrolls was discovered in 1947 by a Bedouin looking for a stray animal. These accidental finds often lead to important excavations . Some sites are explored provisionally by sampling cuts known as sondages . Large sites are not usually dug out entirely, although a moderate-sized round barrow may be completely moved by excavation. The Palaeolithic Period, also called the Old Stone Age, is an ancient cultural stage, or level, of human development, characterized by the use of rudimentary chipped stone tools. At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period (about 2,500,000 to 200,000 years ago), simple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors. A somewhat more sophisticated Lower Paleolithic tradition, known as the chopper -chopping tool industry, is widely distributed in the Eastern Hemisphere. The chopper-chopping tool industry is the earliest recognized tool tradition used by hominids ; also known as the "pebble industry". This tradition is thought to have been the work of the hominid species named Homo erectus.
Image of page 10
Image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern