WEEKLY DISCUSSIONS 4 INITIAL POST NURS 6501N 38 Week Seven Discussion Anemias

Weekly discussions 4 initial post nurs 6501n 38 week

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WEEKLY DISCUSSIONS4INITIAL POSTNURS 6501N-38 Week Seven Discussion AnemiasAnemia is a condition characterized by the impairment or reduction in the iron carrying capacity of blood. Anemia stems from blood loss, impaired erythropoiesis, an increase RBC destruction or a combination of the three (Huether, and McCance, 2017). The World Health Organization defines anemia as a hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration below 13 g/dl (130 g/L) in men over 15 years of age, below 12 g/dl (120g/L) in non-pregnant women over 15 years of age, and below 11 g/dl (110g/L) in pregnant women (World Health Organization, 2011). Classification of the different types of anemia is upon the changes of the RBC or erythrocyte affecting its shape, size, or hemoglobin content (Huether, and McCance, 2017). Iron is an integral part of the hemoglobin protein. Hgb is the oxygen-carrying protein within an RBC. Hgb impairment or reduction in quality and quantity is the primary cause of anemia (Huether, and McCance, 2017). Clinical manifestations of anemia are due to the inability of compensatory mechanisms to balance out the decreased function of the erythrocyte in oxygenating tissues properly. Chest pain, cold extremities, dizziness, fatigue, headache, paleness, and shortness of breath are common symptoms found in anemia (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2012). As hypoxemia worsens cardiovascular, hematologic, renal and respiratory symptoms arise, including angina, arrhythmias, claudication, increased heart rate, murmurs, heart failure, increase of oxygen free radicals, tissue ischemia, and heart, kidney, and liver end-organ changes (Huether, and McCance, 2017). Pathophysiology of Iron Deficiency AnemiaWithout iron, oxygen is unable to be carried resulting in anemia, hypoxemia or tissue ischemia. Iron is required in erythropoiesis or the development of an RBC, specifically in the formation of hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia is a deficit of the mineral iron within the body resulting from inadequate iron intake, increased iron loss (blood loss) and increased iron demandwhich can lead to anemia (Huether, and McCance, 2017). Clinical manifestations specific in irondeficiency anemia (IDA) include angular stomatitis, glossitis, nail and skin changes (hair loss, koilonychia or spoon-shaped nails), neuromuscular changes (numbness, tingling, restless legs syndrome), pica (abnormal cravings of non-food substances) and neurologic changes including mental confusion and memory loss (Huether, and McCance, 2017). IDA is the most common anemia worldwide.Iron is absorbed in the gastrointestinal track and stored in various locations (liver) as ferritin in large storages complexes or hemosiderin (Huether, and McCance, 2017). The amino acid peptide hepcidin regulates iron hemostasis and releases iron as needed (2017). As the body requires iron is synthesized into transferrin and transported to the bone marrow (2017). In the bone marrow, iron is stored as ferritin or hemosiderin until necessary for erythropoiesis (Huether,and McCance, 2017).
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