However after accounting for this the presence or

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However, after accounting for this, the presence or absence of top predators had a significant effect.
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14 Mesopredator release Mesopredators were cats, raccoons, and opossums These eat birds, nestlings, or eggs Presence of top predator lowers the density and activity of these mesopredators Leading to increased numbers of bird species and increased population density of birds Top predators Important in many ecosystems Often the most difficult populations to maintain. Usually have large home ranges and low densities Maintaining viable populations of top predators often ensures viability of populations of most other species Philosophy of Nature Reserves Nature reserves are biodiversity islands In a sea of habitat degraded to varying degrees by human activity One argument for extensive reserves Is that large, far-ranging animals with low-density populations require extensive habitats Organisms with smaller ranges will be ok too If large contiguous reserves are not feasible, smaller ones connected by movement corridors are the next best thing
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15 Biodiversity Hot Spots A biodiversity hot spot is a relatively small area – With an exceptional concentration of endemic species and a large number of endangered and threatened species Terrestrial biodiversity hot spots Equator Figure 55.17 California, a worldwide hotspot of endangered biodiversity. Why? High level of endemism for many types of organisms Unusual Mediterranean climate Separated from rest of continent by inhospitable deserts and mountains “An island called California” High level of threat due to habitat destruction Population pressure Easy to develop Low public awareness of biotic novelty Number of endemic plant species, by state
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16 San Diego is a Hot Spot Really hot.
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17 Why is California a hotspot of endangered biodiversity? High incidence of endemism Unusual Mediterranean climate Relative isolation from rest of continent due to mountains and deserts to the east “An island called California” High threat of development Climate attracts huge human population Chaparral easy to develop and uncharismatic Weighing Conflicting Demands Conserving species often requires resolving conflicts – Between the habitat needs of endangered species and human demands Landscape and regional conservation aim to sustain entire biotas In recent years, conservation biology – Has attempted to sustain the biodiversity of entire communities, ecosystems, and landscapes
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18 One goal of landscape ecology, of which ecosystem management is part – Is to make biodiversity conservation part of land-use planning The politics of conservation Endangered species conservation – Species by species approach Multi-species habitat planning – Attempts to conserve large tracts with viable populations of most species – “No surprises” 1. City of San Diego 2. City of Poway 3. City of Santee 4. City of El Cajon 5. City of La Mesa
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