Interfere with Nucleic Acid Synthesis-Many of the most effective antiviral medications target virally encoded enzymes used during replication of viral nucleic acid; these include:onucleoside and nucleotide analogsonon-nucleoside polymerase inhibitorsonon-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitorsoNS5A inhibitors.-Certain options are available to treat herpesviruses, HCV, or HIV infections. Prevent Genome Integration-Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) interfere with the function of HIV integrase.Prevent Assembly and Release of Viral Particles-Protease inhibitorsbind to and inhibit virally encoded proteases; some options are used to treat HIV, and others are used to treat HCV. -Neuraminidaseinhibitors interfere with the release of influenza virus particles from a cell.20.7 Mechanisms of Interfere with Cytoplasmic Membrane Synthesis and Function-Azoles interfere with ergosterol synthesis.-Polyenes disrupt fungal cell membranes by binding to ergosterol. -Allylamines, tolnaftate and butenafineall inhibit an enzyme in the pathway of ergosterol synthesis.Interfere with Cell Wall Synthesis:-Echinocandinsinterfere with the synthesis of β-1,3 glucan.Interfere with Cell Division: -Griseofulvin is concentrated in keratinized skin cells, where it inhibits fungal cell division.Interfere with Nucleic Acid Synthesis: -Flucytosineis taken up by yeast cells and converted by yeast enzymes to an active form.Interfere with Protein Synthesis-Tavaboroleinhibits protein synthesis by interfering with an enzyme that “charges” a tRNA molecule by attaching the correct amino acid. 20.8 Mechanisms of Action of Antiprotozoans and Antihelminthic medications Most antiparasitic medications are thought to interfere with biosynthetic pathways of protozoan parasites or the neuromuscular function of worms.Chapter 20 Quiz Questions: 1.Please choose the class of antimicrobials that would have themostselectivetoxicity.
2. Which is true of aminoglycosides?
3. Routine antimicrobial treatment of tuberculosis involves taking two ore more medications for at least6 months4. Mycolic acids are targeted by isoniazid in the treatment of
5. Alexander Fleming was working with the bacteriumS. aureuswhen he discovered penicillin. He had cultured the bacteria on agar plates, one of which then became contaminated with a mold. He noticed that theS. aureusdid not grow immediately next to the mold. After analyzing this observation, he went on to show that the mold was synthesizing and secreting a bacteria-inhibiting compound.