Greater equality less human suffering from poverty and oppression and democracy

Greater equality less human suffering from poverty

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Greater equality (less human suffering from poverty and oppression) and democracy (“participatory budgeting”: direct citizen participation)= greater human flourishing and freedom Ex. Mondragon: huge Spanish company made of worker-owned cooperatives o Survived economic crisis; each person has a vote Ex. Porto Allegre, Brazil: urban participatory budget in which spending has been reoriented to the poor and corruption has disappeared Idea: Unconditional basic income to keep everyone above the poverty line; no work needed Émile Durkheim and the Sociological Method Sociology studies Social Facts- manners of acting, thinking and feeling external to individual o Ex. Getting married, tip waiter, have kids, etc. o “Individual is dominated by a moral reality, which transcends him” o actual entity which controls the individual Types of Social Integration Attachment- attachment to social groups and their goals; maintain interpersonal ties to feel like you are part of a larger collective o Excessive attachment >> lose personal self-government Regulation- regulation by collective conscience (values, beliefs, norms) that keep the individual in check o Total regulation of desires >> life loses meaning Durkheim’s Social Cohesion- social bonds, relationships, societal functioning through: Mechanical Solidarity- sameness of society’s parts or members Organic Solidarity- interdependence of specialized parts or members Types of [Sociological] Suicide as defined by Durkheim in Forms of Suicide Human volition and intention is too hard to define especially if person in question is dead; Suicide can be explained by social phenomena 1. Egoistic Suicide caused by low integration (attachment??) and high focus on yourself a. Example: You aren’t reaching your high goals. >> Society doesn’t provide alternate values for you. No one to tell you that you are good enough. 2. Altruistic Suicide caused by high integration (attachment??); the group “requires” suicide and the individual succumbs a. Example: Soldier sacrifices himself for troop or country; widowing wife kills herself after husband dies
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3 3. Anomic Suicide caused by low regulation; society doesn’t give individual regulation and guidance, leaving the individual to be susceptible to their feelings a. Anomie: the lack of usual social or ethical standards in an individual or groups b. Example: Rapid changes in society from old to modern/new values and institutions cannot keep up >> No one to set the rules or help give meaning to life >> feel helpless and you don’t know what to do 4. Fatalistic Suicide caused by high regulation which causes a lack of hope, aspirations and freedom in the individual a. Example: communist or fascist regulation Suicide and: Religion: against Catholicism. Most likely decreased suicide among religious people o Protestantism (more freedom and autonomy, fewer common beliefs) > Catholicism (Durkheim) o Minorities that receive the most hostility, strictly control and discipline themselves to exist; so they have less suicides
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