IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Wor02 b worth metalair investire 2002 per04 annexes

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[wor02] B. Worth: Metal/Air, INVESTIRE 2002, [per04].
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Annexes
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88 A n n e x e s Battery Technology Nominal Voltage [V] Capacity per cell [Ah] Response Time Energy Density [Wh/kg] Energy Density [Wh/l] Power Density W/l PHS - - min 0.2 – 2 0.2 – 2 0.1 – 0.2 CAES - - min - 2 – 6 0.2 – 0.6 Flywheel - 0.7 – 1.7 MW < sec 5 – 30 20 – 80 5 000 Lead acid 2.0 1 – 4 000 < sec 30 – 45 50 – 80 90 – 700 NiCd Vented sealed 1.2 2 – 1 300 0.05 – 25 < sec 15 – 40 30 – 45 15 – 80 80 – 110 75 – 700 (vented) NiMH sealed 1.2 0.05 – 110 < sec 40 – 80 80 – 200 500 – 3 000 Li-ion 3.7 0.05 – 100 < sec 60 – 200 200 – 400 1 300 – 10 000 Zinc air 1.0 1 – 100 < sec 130 – 200 130 – 200 50 – 100 NaS 2.1 4 – 30 < sec 100 – 250 150 – 300 120 – 160 NaNiCl 2.6 38 < sec 100 – 200 150 – 200 250 – 270 VRFB 1.6 - sec 15 – 50 20 – 70 0.5 – 2 HFB 1.8 - sec 75 – 85 65 1 – 25 Hydrogen central decentral - - sec – min 33 330 600 (200 bar) 0.2 – 2 2.0 – 20 SNG - - min 10 000 1 800 (200 bar) 0.2 – 2 DLC 2.5 0.1 – 1 500 F < sec 1 – 15 10 – 20 40 000 – 120 000 SMES - - < sec - 6 2 600 *) insufficient experience in applications Table A-1 – Overview technical data for EES (Fraunhofer) Annex A Technical overview of electrical energy storage technologies
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89 Typical Discharge time Energy- Efficiency η Wh [%] Lifetime [a] Typ. Cycle Lifetime [cycles] Typical applications hours 70 – 80 > 50 > 15 000 Time shifting, Power quality, Emergency supply hours 41 – 75 > 25 > 10 000 Time shifting seconds 80 – 90 15 – 20 2*10 4 – 10 7 Power quality hours 75 – 90 3 – 15 250 – 1 500 Off-Grid, Emergency supply, Time shifting, Power quality hours 60 – 80 60 – 70 5 – 20 5 – 10 1 500 – 3 000 500 – 800 Off-Grid, Emergency supply, Time shifting, Power quality hours 65 – 75 5 – 10 600 – 1 200 Electric vehicle hours 85 – 98 5 – 15 500 – 10 4 Power Quality, Network efficiency, Off-Grid, Time shifting, Electric vehicle hours 50 – 70 > 1 > 1 000 Off-Grid, Electric Vehicle hours 70 – 85 10 – 15 2 500 – 4 500 Time shifting, Network efficiency, Off-Grid hours 80 – 90 10 – 15 ~ 1 000 Time shifting, Electric vehicles hours 60 – 75 5 – 20 > 10 000 Time shifting, Network efficiency, Off-Grid hours 65 – 75 5 – 10 1 000 – 3 650 Time shifting, Network efficiency, Off-Grid hours – weeks 34 – 44 10 – 30 10 3 – 10 4 Time Shifting hours – weeks 30 – 38 10 – 30 10 3 – 10 4 Time Shifting seconds 85 – 98 4 – 12 10 4 – 10 5 Power Quality, Effective Connection seconds 75 – 80 *) *) Time Shifting, Power Quality
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90 A n n e x e s Figure B-1 – The battery management system of a factory (Sanyo, IEC MSB/EES Workshop, 2011) 18650Cell PCS Batteries consist of 18650cells Annex B EES in Smart Microgrids Two examples of Smart Microgrid scalable architectures for EES applications are given. The first is for a factory (Figure B-1). Panasonic Group (Sanyo) has developed a Smart Microgrid with a large-scale storage battery system using lithium ion batteries at the Kasai factory in Japan. The system was installed in October 2010. The system charges the batteries with late-night electricity and surplus solar electricity and uses it during the day. The EES system has more than 1 000 battery boxes, each box consisting of 312 18650cell batteries. Therefore, the system consists of more than 300 000 18650cells. With the battery management system, the whole EES can be used as if it were just one battery. The capacity of
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