To provide research models of human diseases, to help develop new drugs and new strategies for repairing defective genes (“gene therapy”) To provide organs and tissues for use in human transplant surgery To produce milk which contains therapeutic proteins; or to alter the composition of the milk to improve its nutritional value for human infants To enhance livestock improvement programs Regulation of Biotechnology FDA: food safety for food animals created through biotechnology USDA through APHIS regulates food products created by biotechnology Products vs. Process - not concerned with ethical issues Post market and labeling regulation FDA & APHIS requires labeling once product is created Focuses on function of product not method of creation Gras (generally recognized as safe) Products considered GRAS and equivalent to food products already on the market are not required to be labeled Products created through GE that change animals genome are subject to labels Products from cloned animals require no labels
8/4/2017 11 Possible Risks of Biotechnology The effects of the biotechnology on the welfare of the animal – short and long-term Potential human health and food safety concerns for meat or animal products derived from animal biotechnology The potential effects of genetically modified animals on the environment Are you in favor of Animal Biotechnology? For environmental cleanup For human medicine For GM animal feed Genetic modification of animals to increase productivity Cloning animals for medical use Why do animals require a moral status? The issue which has increasingly come to be seen as ethically significant is not the use of animals but their welfare According to this view, the crucial distinction between animals and other natural materials which we may use is that animals can be said to fare well or badly They can be treated in ways which either enhance or diminish their well-being; they can have experiences which are pleasant or unpleasant Two approaches Utilitarianism A calculation has to be made of what is likely to maximize pleasure and minimize pain The best course of action, ethically speaking, is that which produces the most overall satisfaction A second approach Inherent value Animals have inherent value as individuals, which gives them the right to be treated with respect To use a sentient individual, human or animal, purely as a means to achieve one’s own ends, without any respect for that individual’s ends, is ethically unjustifiable according to this account – animal rights approach
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- Spring '15