1 bridal creeper asparagus asparagoides known from

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1. Bridal creeper ( Asparagus asparagoides ) Known from three locations across the Island, Bridal creeper forms a thick mat of underground tubers that impede the root growth of other plants, preventing seedling establishment. It invades undisturbed habitats and is a major threat to shrub communities. Plants can produce more than 1000 berries per square meter and fruits are widely dispersed by wildlife (DEH 2008). 2. Boneseed ( Chrysanthemoides monilifera ) Populations have been recorded from around Currie, including Council reserves and coastal habitat. Small infestations have also been recorded from Reekara and Grassy. Boneseed is capable of completely dominating the habitat it invades. Plants live for ten to twenty years, producing more than 50 000 seeds annually and fruits are readily dispersed by native and exotic fauna (Muyt 2001). 3. Serrated tussock ( Nassella trichotoma ) Isolated infestations are known from Red Hut Point, Boulder Hill and Colliers Swamp in the southeast. Serrated tussock is adapted to a range of soil and fertility conditions. Mature plants develop a drooping smothering form, eventually excluding other ground species. Large vigorous plants can produce 100 000 seeds annually with some remaining viable for up to fifteen years (Muyt 2001) 4. Blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus aggregate) Infestations are localised to a few road sides on Fraser, North Pegarah, Ridges and Reekara roads. Blackberry forms dense impenetrable thickets that exclude all native vegetation. Thickets grow along watercourses and can eventually destabilise areas, they provide protection for pest animals and have the potential to increase the risk of fire in infested areas (Muyt 2001). Blackberry is recognised as a threat to a number of vegetation communities on the Island including Acacia melanoxylon swamp forest, Eucalyptus globulus King Island forest, and Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest. 5. Willow ( Salix sp.) Infestations are localised along selected rivers, including Sea Elephant and Loorana rivers. Willows compete vigorously for space, water and nutrients, eliminating all indigenous vegetation within an infestation. They alter the shape of banks, streambeds and channels through the capture of significant amounts of sediments (Muyt 2001). 6. Gorse ( Ulex europaeus ) There are extensive infestations of gorse on a number of properties and roadsides throughout the Island. Gorse forms dense, impenetrable thickets that eventually exclude native vegetation. It acidifies soils and produces nitrogen rich leaf litter that has the potential to alter the nutrient composition of soil. King Island Biodiversity Management Plan 107
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Infestations can produce up to 10 000 seeds per square metre, that can remain viable for up to thirty years (Muyt 2001). 7. Crow garlic ( Allium vineale ) Small crow garlic infestations have been reported from roadsides. Crow garlic is a pasture weed and has the potential to contaminate milk, meat and grain with an onion odour. It reproduces by bulbs that can remain dormant for several years (AWC 2008b).
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