General Introduction

New materials nanomaterials shape memory alloys

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¾ Type of Materials: ± Ferrous Metals: Carbon, Alloys, stainless, and tool-and-die ± Nonferrous metals: Aluminum, low-melting alloys, precious metals ± Plastics: thermoplastics and thermosets ± Ceramics, glass, graphite, diamond, and diamond-like materials ± Composite materials (Engineered Materials): reinforced plastics, metal-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites. ± New materials: Nanomaterials, shape memory alloys, amorphous alloys, superconductors Page 1-11 Page 1-11 Selecting Materials ¾ Cost ± Availability of Materials ± Reliability of Materials ± • Are special methods needed? • Are specialized people needed? ¾ Appearance ± Color, feel, surface texture ¾ Service Life ± Wear, fatigue, creep, dimensional stability, ¾ Recycling and environmental effects ± Proper treatment and disposal of toxic wastes Page 1-12 Page 1-12 Selecting Manufacturing Processes ¾ Casting (Figure 11.4) ¾ Forming and Shaping ± Rolling (Figure 13.5) ± Forging (Figure 14.6) ± Extrusion and drawing (Figure 15.4) ± Sheet metal forming (bending) ¾ Machining ± Turning (Figure 22.3) ±
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Page 1-13 Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish ¾ Hot working vs. cold working: ± Cold working produces finer tolerances since dimensional changes occur when the material cools. ¾ Nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing ± Nano = 1 billionth (10 -9 ) ± Microknives for surgery ± Gears for microrobots ¾ Surface finish ± Mirror like surfaces • Temperature controlled environment • Cutting tool must be sharp (diamond) Page 1-14 Other Manufacturing Considerations ¾ Operational and manufacturing costs ± Product design cost ± Design and manufacturing of tooling cost ± Lead time ± Inventory costs ± Waste material (striving for zero-base waste) ¾ Improper Selection of Material and Processes ± Stops functioning (break) ± Doesn’t function properly (worn components) ± Unreliable and unsafe (poor connection on a circuit board, cracks in shafts) ¾ Net-Shape Manufacturing (Near Net-Shape) ± Few operations are cheaper than many operations ± Try to obtain close to the finished product by the first operation Page 1-15 Manufacturing Terms ¾ Computer Numerical Control (CNC) ¾ Adaptive Control (AC) ± Process parameters are automatically adjusted during manufacturing (temperature, dmensions, surface finish are monitored) ¾ Industrial Robots ± Reduces human error effects ¾ Automated and robotic assembly systems ¾ Computer Aided Process Planning ± Optimizing process plans, reducing planning costs, improving quality and reliability ¾ Just-in-time production (JIT) ± Inventory costs are low ¾ Expert Systems ± Complex computer programs (if - then) ¾ Artificial Intelligence ± Machines and computers to replace human intelligence ¾ Shared Manufacturing ± Several companies have a manufacturing facility together.
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New materials Nanomaterials shape memory alloys amorphous...

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