New materials nanomaterials shape memory alloys

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New materials: Nanomaterials, shape memory alloys, amorphous alloys, superconductors Page 1-11 Selecting Materials ¾ Cost Availability of Materials Reliability of Materials Workability of Materials Are special methods needed? Are specialized people needed? ¾ Appearance Color, feel, surface texture ¾ Service Life Wear, fatigue, creep, dimensional stability, ¾ Recycling and environmental effects Proper treatment and disposal of toxic wastes Page 1-12 Selecting Manufacturing Processes ¾ Casting (Figure 11.4) ¾ Forming and Shaping Rolling (Figure 13.5) Forging (Figure 14.6) Extrusion and drawing (Figure 15.4) Sheet metal forming (bending) ¾ Machining Turning (Figure 22.3) Milling Drilling ¾ Joining Fasteners, adhesives, welding, soldering, brazing ¾ Finishing Coated abrasives (sand paper) Belt Grinding Deburring
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Page 1-13 Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish ¾ Hot working vs. cold working: Cold working produces finer tolerances since dimensional changes occur when the material cools. ¾ Nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing Nano = 1 billionth (10 -9 ) Microknives for surgery Gears for microrobots ¾ Surface finish Mirror like surfaces Temperature controlled environment Cutting tool must be sharp (diamond) Page 1-14 Other Manufacturing Considerations ¾ Operational and manufacturing costs Product design cost Design and manufacturing of tooling cost Lead time Inventory costs Waste material (striving for zero-base waste) ¾ Improper Selection of Material and Processes Stops functioning (break) Doesn’t function properly (worn components) Unreliable and unsafe (poor connection on a circuit board, cracks in shafts) ¾ Net-Shape Manufacturing (Near Net-Shape) Few operations are cheaper than many operations Try to obtain close to the finished product by the first operation Page 1-15 Manufacturing Terms ¾ Computer Numerical Control (CNC) ¾ Adaptive Control (AC) Process parameters are automatically adjusted during manufacturing (temperature, dmensions, surface finish are monitored) ¾ Industrial Robots Reduces human error effects ¾ Automated and robotic assembly systems ¾ Computer Aided Process Planning Optimizing process plans, reducing planning costs, improving quality and reliability ¾ Just-in-time production (JIT) Inventory costs are low ¾ Expert Systems Complex computer programs (if - then) ¾ Artificial Intelligence Machines and computers to replace human intelligence ¾ Shared Manufacturing Several companies have a manufacturing facility together. This allows them to buy machines they could otherwise not afford.
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