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Intro to Hormones Objectives

Used to assess adrenal aldosterone production to

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– used to assess adrenal aldosterone production, to diagnose primary hyperaldosteronism, and fluid and electrolyte disorders; Increases – primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism, very low sodium diets, pregnancy, Bartter Syndrome; Decreases – congenital adrenal hyperplasia, aldosterone synthase deficiency, very high sodium diet, Addison’s disease, hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism DHEAS – Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; the main adrenal androgen; less than 105 of DHEAS and DHEA are produced by the gonads, therefore, high DHEAS and DHEA
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Introduction to Hormones/Pituitary Function/Adrenal Function – Objectives production strongly suggests adrenal hyperandrogenism, whereas elevated testosterone values are seen w. either adrenal or gonadal hyperandrogenism TESTOSTERONE - diagnosing hypogonadism; hypergonadotropic hypogonadism – characterized by low testosterone and elevated FSH or LH i.e. in Kleinfelter’s syndrome, Primary Testicular Failure, Infection (mumps orchitis), Irradiation, Trauma; hypogonadotropic hypogonadism – low testosterone w/ low or inappropriately normal FSH or LH levels i.e. in Pituitary Disease, Hypothalamic dysfunction, hypopituitarism, Kallmann’s Syndrome, severe obesity, malnutrition, etc.; 4. Name and diagram the three zones of the adrenal cortex and hormones and their primary function produced in each. The major cortex hormones, aldosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), are uniquely synthesized from a common precursor by cells located in 1 of 3 functionally distinct zonal layers of the adrenal cortex. These zonal layers are zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata, and zona reticularis, respectively. G-zone – zona glomerulosa cells (outer 10%) synthesize mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) critical for sodium retention (volume), potassium, and acid –bas homeostasis F-zone – zona fasiculata cells (middle 75%) synthesize glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, and corticocortisone critical for blood glucose homeostasis and blood pressure; it also generates androgen precursors such as DHEA R-zone – zona reticularis cells (inner 10%) sulfate DHEA to DHEAS which is the main adrenal androgen 5. Name the hormone that is primarily affected in Addison’s disease and how it is affected. Also, give a brief definition of Addison’s disease. Addison’s disease is adrenal insufficiency or low cortisol levels; it results from a primary adrenal problem (destruction of 90% of the adrenal cortex) or is secondary to ACTH deficiency; Autoimmune adrenalitis accounts for 70% of the cases of primary adrenal insufficiency; however, other conditions, including fungal diseases, HIV, and TB can also destroy the adrenal gland; glucocorticoid therapy is the most common cause of
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used to assess adrenal aldosterone production to diagnose...

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