allocate funds between claimants, and how to increase the amount of available funds. These issues were taken up in Chapter 7. Nature conservation need not rely entirely on donations and public funds. Managers of protected areas may be able to appropriate some economic benefits from them, for example, by developing ecotourism as an income-earner. However, it is not always easy to reconcile tourism in protected areas with the conservation of biodiversity; nor is ecotourism always profitable. In some cases its development can even become a net drain on the funds available for the management of a protected area. The issues involved were discussed in Chapter 8. It is emphasized that the total economic value of a protected area cannot be assessed purely in terms of the amount of its total economic value appropriated. Some protected areas, for which a high degree of appropriation occurs, are less valuable than others with a low degree. Part III of this book concentrated on actual problems being encountered in conserving nature in Asia. Asia, especially East Asia, exhibited rapid economic growth, which was already apparent in the 1970s and continued virtually unbroken to August 1997, when the Asian economic crisis began to take hold, as a result of financial and political problems. The resulting slowdown or, in some countries, reversal of economic growth may not last for long, and economic growth will return to high levels once again. Whether that happens remains to be seen. In any case, the Asian economic growth which has already occurred has had major impacts on the natural environment. Asia is experiencing similar environmental impacts (outlined in Chapter 9) to those that occurred in Europe, the USA and Australia during their respective periods of rapid economic growth. One impact is loss of biodiversity as economic growth occurs. An interesting comparison can be made with the British situation in which a number of wild animals either became extinct or became locally extinct in historic times. Harting (1880) suggested that the most important factors in animal extinctions in Britain and Ireland were increased hunting, and clearing and economic development of the land. The latter, involving loss of habitat, was probably of greater significance because Harting (1880, p. 209) concludes his study as follows: 'Lake and moor have become fields of yellow grain; forest has changed into morass, morass into moor, and moor again into forest, until finding nowhere to rest in peace; the bear, the beaver, the reindeer, the wild boar, have become in Britain amongst the things that were'. Similar patterns are in the process of being repeated in Asia. For those who value biodiversity, the issues involved need to be addressed urgently. Many complex issues are involved in attempting to reconcile economic growth and nature conservation.
- Summer '20
- Dr joseph
- Biodiversity, biodiversity conservation