Communication Technologies and Standards_IEEE.pdf

Zigbee and zigbee smart energy profile sep have been

Info icon This preview shows pages 2–4. Sign up to view the full content.

ZigBee and ZigBee Smart Energy Profile (SEP) have been re- alized as the most suitable communication standards for smart grid residential network domain by the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) [18]. The communica- tion between smart meters, as well as among intelligent home appliances and in home displays, is very important. Many AMI vendors, such as Itron, Elster, and Landis Gyr, prefer smart me- ters, that the ZigBee protocol can be integrated into [37]. ZigBee integrated smart meters can communicate with the ZigBee inte- grated devices and control them. ZigBee SEP provides utilities
Image of page 2

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

GÜNGÖR et al. : SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES: COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND STANDARDS 531 TABLE I S MART G RID C OMMUNICATIONS T ECHNOLOGIES to send messages to the home owners, and home owners can reach the information of their real-time energy consumption. 1) Advantages: ZigBee has 16 channels in the 2.4 GHz band, each with 5 MHz of bandwidth. 0 dBm (1 mW) is the max- imum output power of the radios with a transmission range be- tween 1 and 100 m with a 250 Kb/s data rate and OQPSK mod- ulation [18]. ZigBee is considered as a good option for me- tering and energy management and ideal for smart grid imple- mentations along with its simplicity, mobility, robustness, low bandwidth requirements, low cost of deployment, its operation within an unlicensed spectrum, easy network implementation, being a standardized protocol based on the IEEE 802.15.4 stan- dard [4]. ZigBee SEP also has some advantages for gas, water and electricity utilities, such as load control and reduction, de- mand response, real-time pricing programs, real-time system monitoring, and advanced metering support [18], [19]. 2) Disadvantages: There are some constraints on ZigBee for practical implementations, such as low processing capabil- ities, small memory size, small delay requirements and being subject to interference with other appliances, which share the same transmission medium, license-free industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band ranging from IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs), WiFi, Bluetooth and Microwave [18]. Hence, these concerns about the robustness of ZigBee under noise conditions increase the possibility of corrupting the entire communications channel due to the interference of 802.11/b/g in the vicinity of ZigBee [20]. In- terference detection schemes, interference avoidance schemes and energy-efficient routing protocols, should be implemented to extend the network life time and provide a reliable and energy-efficient network performance. B. Wireless Mesh A mesh network is a flexible network consisting of a group of nodes, where new nodes can join the group and each node can act as an independent router. The self-healing characteristic of the network enables the communication signals to find an- other route via the active nodes, if any node should drop out of the network. Especially, in North America, RF mesh-based sys- tems are very popular. In PG&E’s SmartMeter system, every smart device is equipped with a radio module and each of them routes the metering data through nearby meters. Each meter acts
Image of page 3
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • One '14
  • smart grid, Power line communication

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern