4 Ascensus copulatus est bona consequentia et formalis in qua arguitur a

4 ascensus copulatus est bona consequentia et

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4. Ascensus copulatus est bona consequentia et formalis in qua arguitur a singularibus copulatim enumeratis ad ipsum univer- sale et talis fieri habet super términos supponentes confuse co- pulatim, quod determinatur a signo collectivo 82 . 5. Inductio est [argumentum] cum a singularibus sufficienter enu- meratis arguitur ad ipsum universale... Et iste modus arguendi est inefficax, quia semper illa maior est dubia. 6. Et est exemplum quando argumentamur ab uno singulari ad aliud singulare..Tenet consequentia a simili et quia ego ratio- nabiliter possum dubitare si est par ratio est inefficax argu- mentum 83 . 5. Reglas fundadas en la conversión de proposiciones. 1. Convertens et conversa mutuo se inferunt [in conversione mu- tua]. 2. Ab affirmativa ad negativam, predicato variato penes finitum et infinitum, valida est consequentia.Bene sequitur: omnis homo est animal, ergo omnis homo non est non animal. 82. TS, 26v. V. lo dicho anteriormente al tratar de la suppositio y de la verdad y falsedad de las proposiciones, con las notas 49 y 57. Omito algunos reajustes y precisiones, que Espinosa discute, y la controversia sobre la constantia con Enzinas (TS, 17v). «Advertendum est ne in ascendendo arguatur a pluribus determinatis respectu partium multitudinis ad unam determinatam respectu totius multitudinis» (f. 17), «Cavendum est ne in descendendo arguatur a confusa ad determinatam» (f. 17v). MUÑOZ, LNS, 270-73; E. J. A S H W O R T H , Language and Logic in the post-medieval period (Dordrecht-Boston 1974), 213-23. 83. In Tbopica, al principio; MUÑOZ, Lógica y filosofía en Soto, 79-80. 189
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VICENTE MUÑOZ DELGADO 3. A negativa ad affirmativam, predicato variato penes finitum et infinitum, valida est consequentia, posita constantia subiecti. Bene enim valet: homo non est animal et homo est, ergo homo non est non animal. Iuxta has duas regulas fundantur conver- siones per contrapositionem: 4. Quando convertitur affirmativa opus est poneré constantiam termini infiniti..Bene enim valet: omnis homo est animal et non animal est, ergo omne non animal est non homo 84 . 6. Reglas de las hipotéticas. a) Condicional 1. A causali ad rationalem et a rationali ad conditionalem bona est consequentia, sed non e converso. Et est quod in lógica dicitur: a propositione habenti pauciores causas veritatis ad propositionem habentem plures validum est argumentum. 2. A tota conditionali, cum positione antecedentis, ad positionem consequentis valet argumentum. 3. A tota conditionali cum destructione consequentis ad destructio- nem antecedentis validum est argumentum. 4. A conditionali ad unam divisivam compositam ex contradictorio antecedentis et ipso consequente validum est argumentum 85 . b) Copulativa 5. A copulativa affirmativa ad quamlibet suarum partium est bo- nus modus arguendi. 6. A copulativa ad disiunctivam ex eisdem partibus, tanquam a propositione habenti pauciores causas veritatis ad propositionem habens plures est bonus modus arguendi (TP, 15).
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  • Fall '19
  • The Republic, España, Lógica, Salamanca, Aristoteles, Retórica, Teologia

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