Error Raised at Trial constitutional error nonconstitutional error 46 c Error

Error raised at trial constitutional error

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Error Raised at Trial  (constitutional error, nonconstitutional error) .............................................. 46 c. Error  Not  Raised at Trial (“Plain Error Review”) ............................................................................ 48
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1 4th Amendment:  “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against  unreasonable searches and seizures , shall not be violated, and no Warrants  shall issue, but upon probable cause,  supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to  be seized.” 5th Amendment:  “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on  presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury , except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice  put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be  deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor shall private property be taken for public use,  without just compensation.” 6th Amendment:  “In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an  impartial jury  of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been  previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with  the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the  Assistance of Counsel for his defence .” 8th Amendment:  “Excessive bail shall not be required , nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual  punishments inflicted.” I. T HE MEANING OF D UE P ROCESS Goals of Criminal Justice Truth: How do the procedures create/prevent the truth from emerging? What effect do these procedures have on the appearance of legitimacy? Fairness/Accuracy: Nominal goal, but depends on the resources devoted to criminal justice; more money can mean more accuracy, but how much is enough , constitutionally? Efficiency: Often in conflict with accuracy; rights are not costless and courts must balance competing claims/rights. E.g. hearsay in grand jury testimony ( Costello ); jury trial right ( Duncan ) Consider discovery rules requiring early disclosure by defense ( Williams ) Legitimacy: The state monopoly on violence requires the appearance of legitimacy to ensure obedience to the law ( Blackledge ) Dignity: o E.g., Faretta , Gonzalez-Lopez Models of Due Process (1) Rule of law ( Hurtado ): DPC as prohibition on arbitrary exercises of government power (2) Bill of Rights ( Duncan
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