BIOC 3560 FA metabolisn.docx

Adipose tissue synthesizes stores and mobilizes

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*Adipose tissue – synthesizes, stores, and mobilizes triacylglycerols (brown adipose tissue carries out thermogenesis) *Skeletal muscle – uses ATP generated aerobically or anaerobically to do mechanical work *Liver – processes fats, varns, proteins from diet; synthesizes and distributes lipids, ketone bodies, and glucose for other tissues; converts excess nitrogen to urea Portal vein – carries nutrients from intestines to liver
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Small intestine – absorbs nutrients from the diet; moves them into blood or lymphatic system Liver The liver is a major metabolic centre of the human body It acts as an overall metabolic (glucose) buffer: o Converting glucose to glycogen or FAs when levels are too high o Releasing glucose from glycogen or gluconeogenesis when levels are too low o Releasing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel Hepatocytes change which enzymes they express to optimally match the nutrients which make up the diet Enzymes are made based on nee, for eg. if an individual consumes a diet that is high in fat more enzymes for β-oxidation will be needed Adipose tissue Convert glucose to FAs Store FAs as triacylglycerol, which accumulate as lipid droplets in the cytoplasm They respond to hormonal signals such as Epi and insulin o Storng TAGs when energy is abundant, and hydrolysing them when energy is lower The released FAs can then serve as a fuel for most tissues in the body Metabolic pathways for glucose-6-phosphate in the liver G6P can be converted to glucose where it will then go to the blood It can be converted glycogen in the liver It can enter the pentose phosphate pathway to crease ribose 5-phosphate that is needed for nucleotide It can be catabolized into pyruvate where it will then enter the mitochondria for glycolysis; acetyl-CoA will be formed which will then enter the TCA then turn into ketone bodies or be converted to cholesterol or FAs that will eventually turn into triacylglycerols, phospholipids Glucose is preferred fuel in most cells Acetyl-CoA from glucose is general not used to make ketone bodies, as glucose is a better universal fuel Metabolism of FAs in the liver The liver can also synthesize triacylglycerol from FAs, to be transported to adipose tissue for storage FAs can become liver lipids They can undergo β-oxidation, forming acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria which can enter the TCA then turn into ketone bodies or be converted to cholesterol which will eventually form bile salts and steroid hormones in the blood Hormonal regulation of metabolism Hormone signal leads to modulation of protein function Hormone receptor regulated protein function
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Peptide and amine hormones are generally faster acting than steroid and thyroid hormones Nuclear receptor – steroid or thyroid hormone enters the cell and a hormone-receptor complex acts in the nucleus; therefore affecting gene regulation
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