Items 2 5 6 8 9 10 and 12 are explanations exercise

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Items 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, ▲10, and 12 are explanations. Exercise 11-6 Items ▲1, ▲4, 5, 9, ▲10 are physical causal explanations. Items 2, 3, 7, and 8 are behavioral causal explanations. Assuming item 6 means something like "Her parents smoked around her because they didn't know it would hurt her," then it qualifies as a behavioral causal explanation. Exercise 11-7 Items ▲1, 3, ▲7, 8, and ▲10 are physical causal explanations. Items 2, ▲4, 5, 6, and 9 are behavioral causal explanations. Exercise 11-8 ▲1. Presumed cause: fouled spark plug Presumed effect: engine miss Testable? Yes 2. Presumed cause: = Antonio’s throwing away the chain letter Presumed effect = Antonio’s having a run of bad luck Testable? No, the attribute "having a run of bad luck" is hopelessly vague. 3. Presumed cause: = Petunia’s not sleeping well Presumed effect = Petunia’s being grouchy Testable? Not easily. Over a period of time one might perceive whether there is a correlation between Petunia or others thinking she is grouchy and her thinking she did not sleep well. ▲4. Presumed cause: = Divine intervention Presumed effect = Cancer being cured Testable? No, due to vagueness; no way to tell when intervention is or isn’t present 5. Presumed cause: = CIA’s not wanting the agents to be identified Presumed effect = CIA’s destroying the files Testable? Yes 6. Presumed cause: = having someone praying for you Presumed effect = having your cancer cured Testable? No, due to vagueness; in addition, there is no way of ensuring that a person is not being prayed for by someone ▲7. Presumed cause: = having your mother pray for you Presumed effect = having good luck Testable? No, not in the absence of a definition of good luck; no way to tell what counts as IM – 11 | 3
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having or not having good luck 8. Presumed cause: = eating oatmeal Presumed effect = having reduced cholesterol Testable? Yes 9. Presumed cause: = being susceptible to flu Presumed effect = getting flu Testable? No, due to circularity ▲10. Presumed cause: = Roddick’s being unable to return Federer’s serve Presumed effect = Federer winning the match Testable? Yes 11. Presumed cause: = Federer’s stronger desire to win Presumed effect = Federer’s winning Testable? No; not possible to compare strength of two people’s desires 12. Presumed cause: = Tuck’s having a command of the upper register Presumed effect = Tuck’s playing high notes so well Testable? No, due to circularity 13. Presumed cause: = Professor York’s having gone to Paris Presumed effect = Professor York’s French having improved Testable? Yes ▲14. Presumed cause: = men’s being biologically weaker Presumed effect = men’s not living as long Testable? No; can’t tell what counts as being biologically weaker 15. Presumed cause: = smoking marijuana Presumed effect = lung cancer Testable? Yes Exercise 11-9 ▲1 . Presumed cause: Having blue eyes in a previous incarnation
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Items 2 5 6 8 9 10 and 12 are explanations Exercise 11 6...

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