Items 2, 5, 6,
8, 9, ▲10, and 12 are explanations.
Items ▲1, ▲4, 5, 9, ▲10 are physical causal explanations.
Items 2, 3, 7, and 8 are behavioral causal explanations.
Assuming item 6 means something like "Her parents smoked around her because they didn't
know it would hurt her," then it qualifies as a behavioral causal explanation.
Items ▲1, 3, ▲7, 8, and ▲10 are physical causal explanations.
Items 2, ▲4, 5, 6, and 9 are behavioral causal explanations.
Presumed cause: fouled spark plug
Presumed effect: engine miss
= Antonio’s throwing away the chain letter
Presumed effect = Antonio’s having a run of bad luck
Testable? No, the attribute "having a run of bad luck" is hopelessly vague.
= Petunia’s not sleeping well
Presumed effect = Petunia’s being grouchy
Testable? Not easily. Over a period of time one might perceive whether there is a
correlation between Petunia or others thinking she is grouchy and her thinking she did not
= Divine intervention
Presumed effect = Cancer being cured
Testable? No, due to vagueness; no way to tell when intervention is or isn’t present
= CIA’s not wanting the agents to be identified
Presumed effect = CIA’s destroying the files
= having someone praying for you
Presumed effect = having your cancer cured
Testable? No, due to vagueness; in addition, there is no way of ensuring that a person is
not being prayed for by someone
= having your mother pray for you
Presumed effect = having good luck
Testable? No, not in the absence of a definition of good luck; no way to tell what counts as
IM – 11 | 3