Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

Extended 2 way travel distance or inadequate egress

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Extended 2-way travel distance or Inadequate egress capacity (a) Root objectives The root objectives are : (i) R2.1 - Occupants must be able to escape to a safe place, directly or through a protected exit, before untenable conditions are reached during a fire emergency. (ii) R2.2 - Fire-fighters must be provided with adequate means of access for fire fighting and rescue operations within the building. (iii) R7.1 - Maintain tenable conditions for evacuation of occupants and protect them from injury arising from the effects of fire. (iv) R7.2 - Provide smoke management in the building for firefighting operations. (b) Sub objectives The sub objectives are : (i) S2.9 - Provisions for adequate ventilation for means of escape. (ii) S2.13 - Provisions for adequate time for occupant escape from building. (iii) S2.14 - Provisions for safe movement of people within the means of escape. (iv) S7.1 - Provisions for ventilation for life safety purposes such that in the event of a fire, evacuation routes are maintained :-
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57 (1) below thermal threshold for human tenability; and (2) at visibility levels adequate for occupant evacuation; and (3) below toxicity threshold for human tenability for the period of time required for escape. (v) S7.2 - Provisions for ventilation to maintain safe conditions in the means of escape for evacuees for the period of time required for escape. Table 9.7 Design fires (sprinkler protected) Usage Location Size Remarks Factory / warehouse / large space or compartment Centre of space or credible location Proposed by FSE Need to factor in vent/exhaust location. As base case analysis, wind direction to be most onerous for smoke dispersal within the premises. In-rack Proposed by FSE To include wind effects as base case analysis Loading / Unloading bay 10 MW truck fire (as prescribed by the fire code) or higher (if deemed necessary by FSE) If path of extended travel distance is through the loading / unloading bay. To include wind effects as base case analysis Atrium Centre Proposed by FSE Axis-Symmetric plume
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58 Shop/unit 5MW (as prescribed by the fire code) or other appropriate fire size as proposed by FSE Axis-Symmetric plume or spill plume Table 9.8 Fire size proposed by FSE based on DETACT T2, FPETool or Firecalc Usage Growth rate Remarks Factory/warehouse Ultrafast 2 nd ring sprinkler activation Factory in-(rack sprinklers) Ultrafast Next higher level of sprinkler activation Usage other than industrial. Fast/Ultrafast 2 nd ring sprinkler activation Table 9.9 Tenability Limits Tenability Criteria Smoke layer 2.5m above relevant FFL Visibility > 10m Temperature < 200 o C Smoke layer drops below 2.5m above relevant FFL Temperature < 60 o C Table 9.10 Acceptance Criteria Scenario Base case ≥ 2 Safety Factor (ASET/RSET) Sensitivity analysis ≥ 1.2 Safety Factor (ASET/RSET) Perpetual tenability (Base cases) shall be required for health care occupancies and projects as deemed appropriate by SCDF (e.g. of national and cultural importance such as airport, Large-scale indoor gardens, National Art Galleries/Museums, etc.) Table 9.11 Determining RSET Time for Method
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