Latin, is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Spanish-speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Spanish. The form of Latin that Spaniards spoke and the loanwords came from was Classical Latin, but also Renaissance Latin, the form of Latin used in original works of the time.Internal history
Spanish shares with other Romance languages most of the phonological and grammatical changes that characterized Vulgar Latin, such as the abandonment of distinctive vowel length, the loss of the case system for nouns, and the loss of deponent verbs.SyncopeSyncope in the history of Spanish refers to the loss of an unstressed vowel from the syllable immediately preceding or following the stressed syllable. Early in its history, Spanish lost such vowels where they preceded or followed R or L, and between S and T.Early syncope in SpanishEnvironmentLatin wordsSpanish words_raperīre, humerum, litteram, operam, honorāreabrir, hombro, letra, obra, honrarr_eremum, viridemyermo, verde_lacūculam, fabulam, insulam, populumaguja, habla, isla, pueblol_sōlitāriumsolteros_tpositum, consūtūrampuesto, costura*Solitario, which is derived from sōlitārium, is a learned word; cf. the alternate form soltero. As also "fábula" from "fabulam", although this last one has a different meaning in Spanish.Later, after the time of intervocalic voicing, unstressed vowels were lost between other combinations of consonants:Later syncope in SpanishEnvironmentLatin wordsSpanish wordsb_tcubitum, dēbitam, dūbitamcodo, deuda, dudac_m, c_p, c_tdecimum, acceptōre, recitārediezmo, azor, rezard_cundecim, vindicāreonce, vengar
f_cadvērificāreaveriguarm_c, m_n, m_thāmiceolum, hominem, comitemanzuelo, hombre, conden_c, n_tdominicum, bonitāte, cuminitiāredomingo, bondad, comenzarp_tcapitālem, computāre, hospitālemcaudal, contar, hostals_c, s_nquassicāre, rassicāre, asinum, fraxinumcascar, rascar, asno, fresnot_c, t_n masticāre, portaticum, trīticum, retinammascar/masticar, portazgo, trigo, riendaWords capital, computar, hospital, recitar and vindicar are learned words; cf. capitālem, computāre, hospitālem, recitāre, and vindicāre and alternate forms caudal, contar, hostal, rezar, and vengar.ElisionWhile voiceless intervocalic consonants regularly became voiced, many voiced intervocalic stops (d, g, and occasionally b) were dropped from words altogether through a process called elision. Latin /b/ between vowels usually changed to /v/ in Old Spanish (e.g. habēre > aver), while Latin /p/ became /b/ (sapere > saber). In modern times the two phonemes merged into /b/ (haber, saber), realized as [β] between vowels (see Merger of /b/ and /v/). Latin voiced stops—/b/, /d/, and /ɡ/, which are represented orthographically as B, D, and G respectively—and alsooccurred in intervocalic positions also underwent lenition: [β], [ð], and [ɣ], but appeared in Spanish also through learned words from Classical Latin.