Latin is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of

Latin is arguably another form of lexical borrowing

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Latin, is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Spanish-speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Spanish. The form of Latin that Spaniards spoke and the loanwords came from was Classical Latin, but also Renaissance Latin, the form of Latin used in original works of the time. Internal history
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Spanish shares with other Romance languages most of the phonological and grammatical changes that characterized Vulgar Latin, such as the abandonment of distinctive vowel length, the loss of the case system for nouns, and the loss of deponent verbs. Syncope Syncope in the history of Spanish refers to the loss of an unstressed vowel from the syllable immediately preceding or following the stressed syllable. Early in its history, Spanish lost such vowels where they preceded or followed R or L, and between S and T.[24][25][26] Early syncope in Spanish Environment Latin words Spanish words _r aperīre, humerum, litteram,[27] operam, honorāre abrir, hombro, letra, obra, honrar r_ eremum, viridem yermo, verde _l acūculam, fabulam, insulam, populum aguja, habla, isla, pueblo l_ sōlitārium soltero s_t positum, consūtūram puesto, costura *Solitario, which is derived from sōlitārium, is a learned word; cf. the alternate form soltero. As also "fábula" from "fabulam", although this last one has a different meaning in Spanish. Later, after the time of intervocalic voicing, unstressed vowels were lost between other combinations of consonants: Later syncope in Spanish Environment Latin words Spanish words b_t cubitum, dēbitam, dūbitam codo, deuda, duda c_m, c_p, c_t decimum, acceptōre, recitāre diezmo, azor, rezar d_c undecim, vindicāre once, vengar
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f_c advērificāre averiguar m_c, m_n, m_t hāmiceolum, hominem, comitem anzuelo, hombre, conde n_c, n_t dominicum, bonitāte, cuminitiāre domingo, bondad, comenzar p_t capitālem, computāre, hospitālem caudal, contar, hostal s_c, s_nquassicāre, rassicāre, asinum, fraxinum cascar, rascar, asno, fresno t_c, t_n masticāre, portaticum, trīticum, retinammascar/masticar, portazgo, trigo, rienda Words capital, computar, hospital, recitar and vindicar are learned words; cf. capitālem, computāre, hospitālem, recitāre, and vindicāre and alternate forms caudal, contar, hostal, rezar, and vengar. Elision While voiceless intervocalic consonants regularly became voiced, many voiced intervocalic stops (d, g, and occasionally b) were dropped from words altogether through a process called elision. [28][29] Latin /b/ between vowels usually changed to /v/ in Old Spanish (e.g. habēre > aver), while Latin /p/ became /b/ (sapere > saber). In modern times the two phonemes merged into /b/ (haber, saber), realized as [β] between vowels (see Merger of /b/ and /v/). Latin voiced stops —/b/, /d/, and /ɡ/, which are represented orthographically as B, D, and G respectively—and also occurred in intervocalic positions also underwent lenition: [β], [ð], and [ɣ], but appeared in Spanish also through learned words from Classical Latin.
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