- started as a night-time festival: slaves get together to visit and socialize together - After emancipation in 1838: rejection - associated with loud revelry and violence (more imagined than actual) - associated with drumming of the kind we heard (complete with goombay drums, whistles, cowbells, saws, and whatever else people could get their hands on). - festival banned, threatened, and limited 19 th and early 20 th centuries. - The elites felt Street Nuisance Act of 1899 (4AM to 9AM on celebration days) (i.e. “no junkanoo is allowed during the hours that you normally do junkanoo”). - As tourists began to frequent Bahamas more regularly during WWII and after, began to express real interest in junkanoo: - Merchants along Bay Street in Nassau (the capital city) took the opportunity and began to institutionalize the festival - 1950s: recognition that festival could generate tourist revenue - Drive to independence around same time junkanoo began to factor as a measure of Bahamian identity 90s Baha-men: - Calling on Bahamian past - 1 st album: nostalgia - 2nd album: talk about Junkanoo now D. JAMAICA Reggae in Response
1509-1655 Spanish colonialism 1655-1962 British colonialism Early 1800s Moroons – escaped slaves set up communities in the mountains: African Retention Revivial – Pocomania They typically sing hymns made popular by a hymn book that made its way around Jamaica in the 19 th century by Ira David Sankey: “Sanceys” Sancey Book Mento is generally understood to be a mixing of African and European elements The classic mento sound is the acoustic, informal, folksy rural style . Still sometimes referred to as country music in Jamaica, it's easy to imagine farmers and their families celebrating harvest with a mento dance Mento (Early 1950s recorded) - Percussion - Homemade Sax - Bassline - Banjo 1950s two streams of Jamaican music emerged: one for uptown, where rich people lived and where the tourists were, and another downtown where poor Jamaicans lived (Urban areas)
- Tourism prodded mento artists to smooth out the style a bit - In dance band mento, home-made instruments were replaced by professional saxes and clarinets and basses. - Often, banjo was left behind in favor of electric guitar. Along with clarinet, piano was often a featured instrument, as the music became overtly jazzy. Percussion was less rustic, and sometimes had a Latin feel. (CUBA)! - Late 1950s things changed because sound systems were technologically possible and available so while downtown (in Kingston Jamaica) live bands weren’t affordable and nobody was really in the financial position to leave, BIG sound systems were owned by those who could throw together the money (pretty much just speakers hooked up to a record player) - They had fancy names like “The Trojan” by Duke Reid or Clement Coxson Dodd’s “Coxsone’s Downbeat” o They were mostly playing New Orleans style R&B such as Fat’s Domino “Be My Guest” (Rolling Piano, Strong Backbeat, Horns!) o By the end of the decade and early 1960s the US wasn’t really into that so much anymore so it was hard for sound system
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- Spring '12
- Music, Bahamas, Reggae, native american church, Dancehall, Peyote song