78 I Bradley The Call to Seriousness The Evangelical Impact on the Victorians

78 i bradley the call to seriousness the evangelical

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78 I. Bradley, The Call to Seriousness: The Evangelical Impact on the Victorians (London, 1976). 79 E. Burke, The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke , vol. VIII, Speeches on the Impeachment of Warren Hastings , 2 vols., vol. 2 (London, 1857), p. 50.
Protestant nation to Christian empire, 1801–1908 63 to make cultural demands, including conversion to Christianity, that were not expected by traders and planters. Evangelicals also led the way in insisting that the commercial opera- tions of Charter companies such as the East India Company, or the Hudson’s Bay Company in Upper Canada, should acquire a moral character. The commercial nature of rule in India had not precluded all religious services, especially to other Europeans. Under its revised Charter (1698), the East India Company and other trading compan- ies who conducted commercial enterprises in east Asia, Australia and America were required to appoint Anglican and Presbyterian chap- lains whose teaching would reflect the orthodoxy of the established churches at home. Toleration of the religious representatives of other European colonial powers, such as the Catholic missionaries of for- merly Portuguese Bombay, was also required as a consequence of the 1689 Toleration Act. 80 Nevertheless, the Charter gave the East India Company power to exclude disturbing influences, including missionar- ies, from territory under their control. 81 With the effective implementa- tion of direct government rule of India by the India Office, the number of British administrators and their families resident in India expanded considerably. The passage of the Charter Renewing Act of 1813 marked the formal end to the policy that placed heavy restrictions on the activ- ities of Christian missionaries. After 1814, the East India Company provided Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist and Catholic chaplains to those serving in its military garrisons. 82 The high water mark for the political influence of evangelicals was probably reached sometime before 1830 and declined thereafter. In contrast with their earlier triumphs in routing moral lapses in the West Indies (slavery) and India (Warren Hastings), humanitarians were unable to persuade the Colonial Office to support the findings of the 1835–6 Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines, which brought down a report which condemned settler brutality in Canada, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Instead, the government moved to permit colonisation of New Zealand. Missionary influence over the New Zealand Treaty of Waitangi (1840) was supposed to lead to the moral management of the acquisition of land, but enraged the 80 P. Carson, ‘The British Raj and the Awakening of the Evangelical Conscience: The Ambiguities of Religious Establishment and Toleration, 1698–1833’, in Christian Missions and the Enlightenment , ed. B. Stanley (Grand Rapids, MI, 2001), pp. 45–70, citing K. Ballhatchet, ‘The East India Company and Roman Catholic Missionaries’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History , 42 (1993), pp. 273–88.

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