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Electron transport stage that produces the most atp

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ELECTRON TRANSPORT- stage that produces the MOST ATP Attached to CRISTAE inner membrane 2 to create proton gradient and make ATP Includes: THREE transmembrane PROTON PUMPS; Carrier molecules between pumps = UBIQUINONE (Q); and CYTOCHROMES Each NADH makes 3 ATP (drops its electrons at top of ETC; hits all 3 proton pumps) Each FADH 2 makes 2 ATP (drops its electrons at Q; skips 1 st proton pump; so makes less ATP) Electrons passing down ETC provide energy for pumping H + ions into INTERMEMBRANE SPACE Final electron acceptor at end of ETC = O 2 (O 2 + 2e- +2H + H 2 O) 1 glucose yields 36 net ATP Proton gradient powers ATP SYNTHASE to ADP + P i ATP PROTON MOTIVE FORCE = potential energy of hydrogen ion gradient CHEMIOSMOSIS = Generation of ATP from a proton gradient (It occurs in all living things) OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION using proton gradient created by electron transport chain in cristae membrane to make ATP ETC + CHEMIOSMOSIS = OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION Addition of phosphate group directly WITHOUT proton gradient and ATP synthase OTHER FUEL MOLECULES Fats, proteins, carbohydrates can be broken down to release energy 1 g of fat twice as much ATP as 1 g of carbohydrate BETA OXIDATION = breakdown of fatty acids into 2 carbon fragments can enter Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA Intermediates from glycolysis and Krebs cycle can be diverted into anabolic pathways to provide building blocks for many macromolecules
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