Communication which are expected to dramatically

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communication, which are expected to dramatically improve the current cellular technologies (4G) in terms of system capacity, coverage, peak rates, throughput, latency, user experience, etc. [1]. 5G is the result of using various technologies like mm- Wave communication, Massive MIMO, and Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs)[1]. 5G, despite of the first four generations of cellular networks that completely dependent upon the base station (BS), is heading towards device-centric approach, which means that network setup is managed by the devices themselves. A rigorous growth exists in networks traffic over the years and will continuously increase in the following years, as depicted in Fig. 1. This results in overloading at the base station (BS). Due to this mounting load on the base station (BS), there is an increase in the demand for power. Fig. 1. Cisco forecasts 49 Exabytes per month of mobile data traffic by 2021[2] offloaded from the base station and here D2D communication plays a crucial role. Since D2D communication allows devices to communicate with each other without traversing the base station, load on the base station is highly reduced. Some have speculated that Wi-Fi offload will be less relevant after 4G networks are in place because of the faster speeds and more abundant bandwidth. However, 4G networks have attracted high-usage devices such as advanced smartphones and tablets, and now 4G plans are subject to data caps similar to 3G plans. For these reasons, Wi-Fi offload is higher on 4G networks than on lower-speed networks, now and in the future according to Cisco projections. The amount of traffic offloaded from 4G was 63 percent at the end of 2016, and it will be 66 percent by 2021 (Fig. 2)[2]. The amount of traffic offloaded from 3G will be 55 percent by 2021, and the amount of traffic offloaded from 2G will be 69 percent. As 5G is being introduced, plans will be generous with data caps and speeds will be high enough to encourage traffic to stay on the mobile network instead of being offloaded, so the offload percentage will be less than 50 percent. As the 5G network matures, we may see higher offload rates thereby D2D communication as one more mechanism for network offloading will become more applicable.
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Fig. 2. Mobile data traffic and offload traffic[2] II. OVERVIEW OF DEVICE-TO-DEVICE (D2D) COMMUNICATION D2D communication is being considered as an essential component of the 5G networks. Communication features such as system capacity, throughput, spectral efficiency, and latency are expected to improve with the help of applying D2D communication technique [3-4]. In [5], the evolutionary development of cellular communication generations has been given. An overview of the services supported by the generations of cellular communications is shown in Fig. 3.
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  • Fall '19
  • Radio resource management, Cellular network, Cell site

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