Cancer5.Examine the basic concepts of cancer nomenclature and biology. a.Explain how a cancer cell’s biology differs from a normal cell’s biology. Normal Cell Biology Cancer Cell Biology b.Identify the cancer types which produce the tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, beta human chorionic gonadotropin, and prostate specific antigen.
7Alpha FetoproteinLiver and germ cell tumorsCarcinoembryonic AntigenGI, pancreas, lung, breastBeta Human Chorionic gonadotropin Germ CellProstate Specific AntigenProstate tumorsc.Identify the origins of a cancer based on the following cancer nomenclature: Carcino-, sarco-, -oma, -blastoma, and carcinoma in situ. TermDefinitionExample Carcino- (prefix)Cancers arising from epithelial tissueCarcinoma of the skinSarco- (prefix) Cancers arising from connective tissueMalignant cancers of skeletal muscle are known as rhabdomyosarcomas-oma (suffix)Tumor or cancerA benign tumor of the smooth muscle of the uterus is a leiomyoma, benign fat tumor isa lipomaCarcinoma in SituPre-invasive epithelial malignant tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin. Abnormal growths with atypical cells that have not yet penetrated the basement membrane or invaded surrounding tissue.Low grade dysplasia in the cervix-blastoma (suffix)Cancers derived from immature "precursor" cells or embryonic tissueUsually childhood cancers, nephroblastoma, embryonic tumorsd.Analyze the patterns of metastasis of the specified cancers (lung, colorectal, testicular, prostate, breast, head and neck, ovarian, sarcoma, melanoma). Primary cancer Sites of MetastasisLungPulmonary vein to left ventricle. Multiple organs including the brainColorectalMesenteric lymphatics, portal venous system, inferior vena cava, right ventricle, pulmonary artery. Liver, lungsTesticularLymphatics to periaortic area to subclavian veins to right ventricle. Lungs, liver, brainProstateRegional lymphatics and veins, which drain to Batson plexus of presacral veins. Bones, liverBreastAxillary, trans-pectoral, and internal mammary
8lymphatics. Bones, lung, brain, liverHead and NeckDirect extension. Lymphatics, liver, bones.OvarianDirect extension, peritoneal seeding, mesenteric veins. Peritoneal surfaces, diaphragm, omentum,liver.Sarcomanferior vena cava, right ventricle, pulmonary artery. Lungs.Melanoma Regional lymphatics. Lung, liver, brain, gastrointestinal tract.e.Evaluate and describe the mechanisms of cancer metastasis. f.Analyze the TNM staging system for cancers. g.Examine the role and function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cancer cell. h.Examine the role of the BRCA gene as it relates to the risk of developing cancer in men. i.Analyze the clinical manifestations of cancer: Paraneoplastic syndromes and Cachexia.
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- Fall '17