about one-seventh as much chance of earning $10,000 a year, a life expectancy which is 7 years shorter, and the prospects of earning only half as much,” he uses statistics to quantify the lack of freedom and opportunity for the African American community. This persuasive grouping of statistics gives white citizens, perspective on the appalling conditions afflicting the African American community. 3. “Today, there are Negroes unemployed, two or three times as many compared to whites, inadequate education, moving into the large cities, unable to find work, young people particularly out of work without hope, denied equal rights, denied the opportunity to eat at a restaurant or a lunch counter or go to a movie theater, denied the right to a decent education, denied almost today the right to attend a
7 State university even though qualified. It seems to me that these are matters which concern us all, not merely Presidents or Congressmen or Governors, but every citizen of the United States” JFK draws upon examples and observations of the unfair conditions that African Americans put up with. By employing these as evidence, he solidifies the fact of how the racism inflicted on the African American community concerns their fundamental rights as American citizens. Transition: Despite Kennedy’s heavy dependence on evidence and direct examples of why the continuation of Civil Rights is essential, Kennedy also appeals to his audience’s emotions to communicate his message. B. JFK uses pathos to strengthen the idea of liberty and freedom which all Americans should have. 1. JFK consistently uses the phrase “it ought to be possible” when describing the activities and facilities that are refused to the African American community due to racism. The choice of the word “ought” is efficacious and skillful because it communicates JFK’s distaste for the current situation. 2. “It ought to be possible for American consumers of any color to receive equal service in places of public accommodation, such as hotels and restaurants and theaters and retail stores, without being forced to resort to demonstrations in the street, and it ought to be possible for American citizens of any color to register and to vote in a free election without interference or fear of reprise”. JFK uses this compelling statement to fire up his audience in support of Civil Rights. It gives them a glimpse of what they can hope for if
8 Civil Rights is continued and shows them that JFK is prepared to do whatever necessary to help them achieve that. 3. JFK also uses a disappointed tone throughout the speech. He uses decisive descriptors and word choices that clue the audience into the fact that he is gung-ho about changing the, at the time, the current conditions of Civil Rights in the United States. By displaying this tone throughout his speech, he incites his audience's emotions, making them feel derelict for the conditions of African Americans and calling for reform.