Consonant blending and vowel change actually æk ʃ

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] = consonant blending and vowel change actually ['æk ʃ li] = consonant blending, vowel and syllable loss Syllables or words which are articulated precisely are those high in information content, while those which are weakened, shortened, or dropped are predictable and can be guessed from the context. Sound adjustments in connected speech can be summarized as follows: Table 3 Types of adjustments Kinds of adjustments 1. Adjustments related to C-C linking 1 . Assimilations = modifications of a C under the influence of a neighboring C. 2. Adjustments related to V-V, C-V, V-C linking 1. Liaison = connecting of the final sound of one word or syllable to the initial sound of the next. 2. Accommodation (adaptation) = modifications of C under the influence of the adjacent V or vice versa: e.g. two = labialized [t] under the influence of the rounded [u]; let = more open [e] after [l] . 3. Glottal stop / hard attack
37 3. Adjustments related to sound deletion / insertion 1. Elisions (elipsis or omission) = deletion of a sound in rapid or careless speech. 2. Epenthesis = inserting of a V or C segment within an existing string of segments. 3. Smoothing = a diphthong optionally loses its second element before another vowel, or it is monophthongized: E.g.: fire ['fai ə -'f a ə - 'f a :]. 4. Adjustments on the syllable level Compression when two syllables, usually both weak, optionally become one. Applies only to [ i ] , [u], syllabic consonants: [i] becomes like [j] , e.g. lenient ['li:ni ə nt] - ['li:nj ə nt], etc. 5. Weakening Weakforms are alternate forms of words so reduced in their articulation that they consist of a different set of phonemes. Weakforms differ from strongforms by containing a weak vowel resultant from reduction or by elision of one or more of its phonemes, e.g. can [k ə n], [kn] Adjustments related to C-C linking Assimilation. During assimilation a given C (the assimilating C) takes on the char- acteristics of a neighboring C (the conditioning C). This is often misunderstood as ‘lazy' or 'sloppy' speech, since the organs of speech involved appear to be taking the path of least resistance. However, assimilation is a universal feature of spoken language. In English it occurs frequently, both within words and between words. Several types of assimilation can be recognized. 1. According to the degree the assimilating C takes on the characteristics of the neighbouring C, assimilation may be 1) partial or 2) total. In the phrase ten bikes, the normal form in colloquial speech would be [tem baiks], not [ten baiks] which would sound somewhat 'careful'. In this case, the assimilation has been partial: the [n] has fallen under the influence of the following [b] and has adopted its bilabiality, becoming [m] . It has not, however adopted its plosiveness. The phrase [teb baiks] would be likely if one had a severe cold! The assimilation is total in ten mice [tem mais], where the [n] is now identical with [ m ] . 2. A further classification is in terms of the direction in which the assimilation works. There are three possibilities: 2.1. Regressive (or anticipatory) assimilation: the sound changes due to the in-

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