CHEM 151 study guide for all chapters

A selman a waksman b e j corey c r b woodward 3

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a) Selman A. Waksman b) E. J. Corey c) R. B. Woodward 3. Describe briefly the double activation macrolactonization method and use chemical drawings to illustrate this process.
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Chapter 18: Monensin 1. Describe briefly (50 words or less) the mechanism of action of monensin and its uses today. 2. Write the structure of 18-Crown-6, mention its main chemical properties, and name the three scientists that shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their studies on this and related molecules.
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3. Name the synthetic organic chemist responsible for the first total synthesis of monensin. 4. Describe briefly (50 words or less) the hydroboration reaction, mentioning the chemist most closely associated with its development and its applications to chemical synthesis.
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Chapter 19: Avermectin 1. Name the discoverer of avermectin B 1 α and briefly describe its biological properties. 2. Outline briefly (25 words or less) the industrial production of ivermectin, and name two important uses of this molecule. 3. What is the connection of the following scientists and institutes with avermectin B 1 α and ivermectin: a) Samuel J. Danishefsky b) Stephen Hanessian c) P. Roy Vagelos d) Merck Pharmaceutical Company e) The Kitasato Institute 4. Define the term protecting group (PG) in chemical synthesis, and give an example.
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Chapter 20: Amphotericin B 1. Write notes (50 words or less) on amphotericin B, stating its main structural motifs, biological properties, and medical applications. 2. Name three species of fungi and explain how each one plays a beneficial role in everyday life.
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3. Name three scientists whose work advanced the chemistry of amphotericin B. 4. Describe briefly the Wittig reaction using formulas, and mention its significance for organic synthesis.
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Chapter 21: Ginkgolide B 1. Write a short essay (100 words or less) on the history of the ginkgo tree and the uses of the Ginkgo biloba extracts. 2. Give the names and contributions of two chemists whose work advanced the chemistry of ginkgolide B.
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Chapter 22: Cyclosporin, FK506 & Rapamycin 1. Describe (50 words or less) the impact of cyclosporine, FK506 and rapamycin on medicine and society. 2. Give the contribution of each of the following individuals to the chemistry, biology, or medicine of cyclosporine, FK506, or rapamycin, and name the company at which each of these molecules was discovered and developed as a drug. a) Jean-François Borel and Hertmann F. Stähelin b) Stuart Schreiber c) Thomas Earl Starzl
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3. In a short paragraph (50 words or less) outline the impact of palladium catalysis on modern chemical synthesis and mention four chemists whose work has decisively advanced this field.
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Chapter 23: Calicheamicin γ 1 I 1. Write a short essay (100 words or less) on the story of calichaemicin γ 1 I describing its discovery, mechanism of action, and development into a drug.
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2. Name three scientists and their contributions to the chemistry, biology, or medicine of calichaemicin γ 1 I .
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