A complication with chemotherapy concerns R plasmids which have been demon

A complication with chemotherapy concerns r plasmids

This preview shows page 413 - 415 out of 594 pages.

A complication with chemotherapy concerns R-plasmids which have been demon- strated in cultures o^ Edw. tarda isolated from eels (Aoki et al, 1977). Conceivably, this may cause problems for chemotherapy in the future. Pantoea agglomerans The pathogen was sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and tetra- cycHne, but not to novobiocin or penicillin (Hansen et al, 1990). Based on these data, it would be prudent to evaluate tetracycline as a chemotherapeutant on fish farms, if the disease recurs. Plesiomonas shigelloides A 10-day treatment regime with potentiated sulphonamide (sulphadiazine at 200 mg/ kg of body weight offish/day and trimethoprim at 50mg/kg body weight offish/day) was effective in reducing mortality levels (Cruz et al, 1986). Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae Although control regimes were not adopted, the isolate was sensitive to chlor- amphenicol, fradiomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and tetracycline, but resistant to erythromycin, spiramycin and sulpha- dimethoxine (Kodama et al, 1987). Serratia liquefaciens There was contradictory evidence regarding the value of chemotherapy with oxy- tetracycline. Nevertheless, the disease could be controlled with oxolinic acid (Mcintosh and Austin, 1990b). Serratia marcescens Isolates were sensitive to flumequine, oxolinic acid and potentiated sulphonamide (Baya et al, 1992c). Serratia plymuthica Isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, flumequine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, potentiated sulphonamide and streptomycin, but not to nitrofurantoin or sulpha- diazine (Nieto et al, 1990; Austin and Stobie, 1992b). Presumably, effective chemo- therapy could be achieved with one or more of these compounds.
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Control 395 Yersinia rucked Control of clinical cases of ERM may be mediated by means of antimicrobial compounds, including sulphamerazine and oxytetracycline (Rucker, 1966), methyl- ene blue and oxytetracycline (Llewellyn, 1980), potentiated sulphonamides (Bullock et ai, 1983), tiamulin (Bosse and Post, 1983) and oxolinic acid (Rodgers and Austin, 1982). Early success was obtained by administering medicated diet containing sulpha- merazine (200mg/kg body weight offish/day for 3 days; Rucker, 1966; Klontz and Huddleston, 1976), followed by oxytetracycline (50 mg/kg body weight offish/day for 3 days). A parallel therapy worked against salmonid blood spot (Llewellyn, 1980). This involved treatment with methylene blue dosed at 1 g of dye/kg of food for 5 days), followed by oxytetracycline (66 mg/kg body weight offish/day for 10 days) and then a repeat dose of methylene blue. Llewellyn (1980) reported that in hatchery conditions the disease cleared up in 10 to 14 days. Two groups of workers demonstrated success with potentiated sulphonamides. Bullock et al. (1983) described the beneficial effects of a mixture of sulphadimethox- ime and ormetroprim, dosed at 50 mg/kg body weight of fish/day for 5 days, whereas Bosse and Post (1983) discussed the usefulness of a combination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim at the very low dose of 1 mg/kg body weight of fish/day for 14 days.
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