anchoring the bias to be affected by an initial anchor even if its arbitrary

Anchoring the bias to be affected by an initial

This preview shows page 17 - 19 out of 43 pages.

- anchoring – the bias to be affected by an initial anchor, even if it’s arbitrary. - sets a ceiling for the highest price you will pay. - framing – bias to be systematically affected by the way in which information is presented. CHAPTER 5 – LANGUAGE: TEXTBOOK Components of Language: Arbitrary Associations: - words used to represent concepts in language are made up and arbitrary. - same concept can be represented by different words in other languages. - onomatopoeia is an exception to this component, since the word represents an actual sound. Productive: - with the limited set of sound combinations and words in a language, a potentially infinite number of expressions can be made, including completely novel expressions. Rule-Governed: - rules about what makes sense exist between languages, despite language’s productive nature. Structure of Language: Morphemes – The Symbols of Language: - symbols of language used to transmit information. - analyzing the morphemic structure of language can reveal information about its origins and development. Phonemes – The Building Blocks of Symbols: - morpheme that is broken up into its constituent sounds. - languages typically use a set of around 30 - 50 phonemes. Grammar – The Rules for Constructing Sentences: - rules that govern how we put words together to form a sentence. - commonly understood, difficult to describe. Semantics – The Meaning: - meaning that is produced through the use and/or combination of certain words and morphemes. Language Development: Age Language-Related Skill 0 – 4 months Turns head towards sound source; makes noise when spoken to; cooing; pragmatics. 6 – 12 months Tries to imitate sounds; babbles. 12 – 17 months Answers simple questions non-verbally; points; follows simple directions with gestures; 1 – 3 word sentences; holophrastic phase. 18 – 23 months Follows simple verbal directions; asks for familiar items by name; combines words; imitates animal sounds; naming explosion; telegraphic speech.
Image of page 17
PSYCH 1X03 – Exam Summary 24 months Uses ~ 50 – 250 words. 2 – 3 years Speaks in 2 – 3 word phrases; answers simple questions; begins to use plurals and past tense. 5 years Understands >2000 words; uses longer sentences. 6 years Understands >10 000 words; continues to develop sentence structure; fast mapping. Universal Phonemic Sensitivity: - ability to discriminate between virtually all phonemes even before an infant learns language. - conditioned head-turn procedure examples: o familiar phoneme is presented (repeatedly) – the infant loses interest infant has habituated to the sound of the phoneme. o novel phoneme is presented (following a familiar phoneme) – the infant shows no interest infant is unable to discriminate between the phonemes. o novel phoneme is presented (following a familiar phoneme) – the infant turns their head infant can discriminate between the phonemes.
Image of page 18
Image of page 19

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 43 pages?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture