- anchoring – the bias to be affected by an initial anchor, even if it’s arbitrary. - sets a ceiling for the highest price you will pay. - framing – bias to be systematically affected by the way in which information is presented. CHAPTER 5 – LANGUAGE: TEXTBOOK Components of Language: Arbitrary Associations: - words used to represent concepts in language are made up and arbitrary. - same concept can be represented by different words in other languages. - onomatopoeia is an exception to this component, since the word represents an actual sound. Productive: - with the limited set of sound combinations and words in a language, a potentially infinite number of expressions can be made, including completely novel expressions. Rule-Governed: - rules about what makes sense exist between languages, despite language’s productive nature. Structure of Language: Morphemes – The Symbols of Language: - symbols of language used to transmit information. - analyzing the morphemic structure of language can reveal information about its origins and development. Phonemes – The Building Blocks of Symbols: - morpheme that is broken up into its constituent sounds. - languages typically use a set of around 30 - 50 phonemes. Grammar – The Rules for Constructing Sentences: - rules that govern how we put words together to form a sentence. - commonly understood, difficult to describe. Semantics – The Meaning: - meaning that is produced through the use and/or combination of certain words and morphemes. Language Development: Age Language-Related Skill 0 – 4 months Turns head towards sound source; makes noise when spoken to; cooing; pragmatics. 6 – 12 months Tries to imitate sounds; babbles. 12 – 17 months Answers simple questions non-verbally; points; follows simple directions with gestures; 1 – 3 word sentences; holophrastic phase. 18 – 23 months Follows simple verbal directions; asks for familiar items by name; combines words; imitates animal sounds; naming explosion; telegraphic speech.
PSYCH 1X03 – Exam Summary 24 months Uses ~ 50 – 250 words. 2 – 3 years Speaks in 2 – 3 word phrases; answers simple questions; begins to use plurals and past tense. 5 years Understands >2000 words; uses longer sentences. 6 years Understands >10 000 words; continues to develop sentence structure; fast mapping. Universal Phonemic Sensitivity: - ability to discriminate between virtually all phonemes even before an infant learns language. - conditioned head-turn procedure examples: o familiar phoneme is presented (repeatedly) – the infant loses interest infant has habituated to the sound of the phoneme. o novel phoneme is presented (following a familiar phoneme) – the infant shows no interest infant is unable to discriminate between the phonemes. o novel phoneme is presented (following a familiar phoneme) – the infant turns their head infant can discriminate between the phonemes.
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- Winter '14
- The American