ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Formalization is the degree to which jobs within the

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Formalization is the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized . If a job is highly formalized, then the job incumbent has a minimum amount of discretion over what is to be done, when it is to be done, and how he or she should do it. There are explicit job descriptions, lots of organizational rules, and clearly defined procedures covering work processes in organizations where there is high formalization. Simple structure is a structure characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization. The simple structure is said to be characterized most by what it is not rather than what it is. The simple structure is not elaborated. The simple structure is a “flat” organization. It usually has only two or three vertical levels, a loose body of employees, and one individual in whom the decision-making authority is centralized. The simple structure is most widely practiced in small businesses in which the manager and the owner are one and the same.
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An organization's shape depends on the number of levels of management. If one has many levels of supervision and narrow spans of control, it is a tall organizational structure. A flat structure would have few levels of management and broad spans of control. In a vertical organization, companies define jobs and activities by using Departmentalization – the arrangement of activities into logical groups that are then clustered into larger departments and units that form the total organization. Departmentalization is most often done according to function, division, matrix, or network. The bureaucracy is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization , very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command. The primary strength of the bureaucracy lies in its ability to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient manner. Putting similar specialties together in functional departments results in economies of scale, minimum duplication of personnel and equipment, and employees who have the opportunity to talk the same language among their peers. Further bureaucracies can get by with less talented and less costly middle and lower level managers. A bureaucracy is a mechanistic form of organization--it is centralized, hierarchical, guided by rules and written procedures, with highly specialized jobs. This is known as a mechanistic form of organization, versus an organic organization. An organic organization is pretty much the opposite of a mechanistic one--it is more informal, less hierarchically structured, and has less rigid specialization.
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