Inflammation children more prone short tube

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Inflammation Children more prone (short tube, anatomical position for fluid to build up) 17. Differentiate otitis media from otitis externa Media: inner ear Externa: outer ear 18. How to assess pain (pain scales) COLDSPA 0-10 Faces Pain Scale (people who can’t comprehend 0-10 scale/ disabilities) 19. Define crepitation Crackles, popping (bone on bone) 20. Abduction vs. adduction Ad: add to body Ab: away from body 21. Know how to do Phalen’s test and Homan’s test/sign Homan’s: pain in calf or behind knee when you dorsiflex, would NOT do this if you suspect DVT Phalen’s: 22. Differentiate rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis: NOT inflammatory, nodules
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Rheumatoid: swan neck deformity, ulnar deviation 23. Differentiate scoliosis and lordosis-how to test Scoliosis: bend over, touch toes (look for evenness, curving laterally) Lordosis: lumbar curvature 24. Range of motion-how to grade against resistance 25. Skin turgor-signs & reasons for poor turgor Signs: rebound quickly, normal color, moist/intact skin Poor turgor: dehydration, tenting 26. Signs of poor circulation Cyanosis, hair-loss, capillary refill >3 seconds 27. Capillary refill-norms and how to assess Normal: 3 seconds or less How to assess: pinch fingernail 28. ABCDE acronym A: asymmetry B: border C: color D: diameter E: evolving 29. Know terms: bulla, vitiligo, nodule, cyanosis, fissure Bulla: fluid-filled, characteristic of burn area, much larger Vitiligo: loss of pigmentation in the skin Nodule: smaller near hairline, raise and firm Cyanosis: Fissure: cracking of skin 30. Know interview techniques (therapeutic responses, reflection, confrontation, empathetic response, clarification) 31. General survey, functional assessment, subj versus obj data, CAGE questionnaire 32. Sinusitis-how to rule in or out In: tender Out: non-tender 33. Maxillary sinuses-how to assess and why Four pairs: frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal Palpate for tenderness 34. PERRLA: what it stands for & how to assess Pupils Equally Round & Reactive to Light Accommodation 35. Consensual light reflex-how to assess 36. Visual fields gross confrontation-how to assess, what it means Measures peripheral vision compared to examiner Both examiner and patient cover one eye with card/hand, stand about 2 feet away, and maintain eye contact
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Advance finger, starting from periphery, and ask patient to say “now” when the finger is first visible Inability to see when the examiner sees suggests peripheral field loss 37. Snellen chart-how to use and how to interpret it Assesses distance vision 20 = distance from chart (feet) 20 = where a person with person vision could read 38. Lymph: label lymph node chains, know signs of malignancy 39. Abdomen: order of assessment, how to percuss & what it means (including fist percussion for cva tenderness), signs of bleeding & what colors mean Auscultate FIRST (if not disrupts bowel sounds) 40. Abdomen: tests for ascites (fluid wave), tympany findings, know signs of aortic abdominal aneurysm and what to do if suspected, know strangulated vs. incarcerated
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