Maximum 2 incisors 1 canine 3 premolars 3 molars on

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maximum 2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 3 molars on each side of upper and lower jaws - written 2-1-3-3, called the “dental formula” - Dental formula: see explanation in textbook - some primates have lost one or more of these teeth - humans have 2-1-2-3 - plus a bunch of other subtle characteristics - post-orbital bar - post-orbital plate
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Intro to Biological Anthro F 2011 / Owen: What is a primate? p. 5 - only in the Haplorrhine branch of primates, not in the Strepsirrhine primates - more on that next time - shortened face - and others, some of which do not have very obvious functional significance - but probably were simply inherited from the common ancestor of all primates and have not had reason to change - primates that don’t have one or the other of these traits have presumably lost it at some point since their particular branch split from the other primates - that is, the absence of the trait in these primates is a derived trait for them - Where non-human primates live - Mostly tropics, especially dense forests, although some species live in more open forests or grasslands - Old World: Mostly Africa and southern Asia - New World: Central and tropical South America - Classification of primates - Primate taxonomy charts are available online from the class web page - This is part of the scientific (Linnaean) system of taxonomy we talked about earlier - that is, this chart shows how different species are lumped into genera, genera into subfamilies, etc. - this is the nested hierarchy used for naming these groups - there are other variants of this classification scheme - the textbook uses an older scheme in which the two main divisions are called Prosimians and Anthropoids - the main difference is in how the tarsiers are categorized - except for tarsiers, Strepsirrhines are the same as Prosimians, and Haplorrhines are the same as Anthropoids - plus a few differences in how some of smaller categories are lumped - the textbook apparently uses the old scheme to accommodate professors who are used to it - but expert opinion is almost entirely in favor of the version I give you in the handouts - based on recent physical and genetic studies that show pretty clearly that the old scheme was wrong about the tarsiers and a few other minor issues - Except for any errors (some details are still under debate), this naming system should also reflect the phylogeny (pattern of descent) of the primates - although the many branches that went extinct before the present are not shown - This chart should help you understand why certain primates are similar to each other, and why others are more different - because you can see relatively how recently or long ago their lineages diverged - and what ancestral traits they share due to a common ancestor versus what traits differ because they are derived since the lineages split - for example, if you learn some features of hominoids, you know they apply to all the different hominoids shown (generally) - you can see the order of evolution of different traits
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Intro to Biological Anthro F 2011 / Owen: What is a primate? p. 6 -
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