Ogive relative cumulative frequency graph pie chart

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Ogive – relative cumulative frequency graph Pie chart – chart that emphasize each category’s relation to the whole Roundoff error – errors associated with decimal inaccuracies Seasonal variation – a regular rise and fall in a time plot Skewed – if smaller or larger values from the center form a tail Splitting stems – divides step into 0-4 and 5-9 Stemplot – includes actual numerical values in a plot that gives a quick picture of the distribution Symmetric – if values smaller and larger of the center are mirror images of each other Time plot – plots a variable against time on the horizontal scale of the plot Trimming – removes the last digit or digits before making a stemplot Unimodal – a distribution whose shape with a single peak (mode) Key Concepts: Categorical Charts 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Back Wrist Elbow Hip Shoulder Knee Hand Groin Neck Rehab Rehab Back 40% Wrist 7% Elbow 3% Hip 7% Shoulder 13% Knee 17% Hand 7% Groin 3% Neck 3% Pie Chart Bar Chart

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Chapter 1: Exploring Data Stem and Leaf plots : Maintain the raw data, while histograms do not maintain the raw data Best used when the data sets are small Histograms and Bar Graphs: Bar graphs have bars touching; histograms don’t The number of classes, k, to be constructed can be roughly approximated by k = To determine the width of a class use w = and always round up to the same decimal units as the original data. Other Charts: Charts for both types of data 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 Back Wrist Elbow Hip Shoulder Knee Hand Groin Neck Percent Rehab 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 Back Knee Shoulder Wrist Hand Hip Elbow Groin Neck Percent Rehab Pareto Chart Relative Frequency Chart 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Back Wrist Elbow Hip Shoulder Knee Hand Groin Neck Percent Rehab Cumulative Frequency Chart Plot in the upper right corner is a Pareto chart. It is the same as the relative frequency chart; except the categories are in relative frequency order (from largest to smallest) from left to right. This graph came from the Total Quality Management (TQM) era in the middle to late 1980’s. The bottom chart is also known as an ogive. Cautions: Label all axeses and title all graphs Histogram rectangles touch each other; rectangles in bar graphs do not touch. Can’t have class widths that overlap Raw data can be retrieved from the stem-and-leaf plot; but a frequency distribution of histogram of continuous data summarizes the raw data Only quantitative data can be described as skewed left, skewed right or symmetric (uniform or bell-shaped) Uniform Mound-like (Bell-Shaped) Skewed Left (-- tail) Bi-Modal Skewed Right (-- tail) Frequency Distributions
Chapter 1: Exploring Data With the following data a) Construct a stem graph (in example 1 do a back-to-back [comparative] stem plot) b) Construct a histogram Ex. 1 The ages (measured by last birthday) of the employees of Dewey, Cheatum and Howe are listed below.

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