greater than this mere withholding of good none excite more resentment either

Greater than this mere withholding of good none

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greater than this mere withholding of good ; none excite more resentment, either in the person suffering, or in a sympathizing spectator. The principle, therefore, of giving to each what they deserve, that is, good for good as well as evil for evil, is not only included within the idea of Justice as we have defined it, but is a proper object of that intensity of sentiment, which places the Just, in human estimation, above the simply Expedient. Most of the maxims of justice current in the world, and commonly appealed to in its transactions, are simply instrumental to carrying into effect the prin ciples of justice which we have now spoken of. That a person is only responsible for what he has done voluntarily, or could voluntarily have avoided ; that it is unjust to condemn any person unheard ; that the punishment ought to be proportioned to the offence, and the like, are maxims intended to prevent the just principle of evil for evil from being perverted to the infliction of evil without that justification. The
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92 UTILITARIANISM. greater part of these common maxims have come into use from the practice of courts of justice, which have been naturally led to a more complete recognition and elaboration than was likely to suggest itself to others, of the rules necessary to enable them to fulfil their double function, of inflicting punishment when due, and of awarding to each person his right. That first of judicial virtues, impartiality, is an obligation of justice, partly for the reason last men tioned ; as being a necessary condition of the fulfil ment of the other obligations of justice. But this is not the only source of the exalted rank, among human obligations, of those maxims of equality and impar tiality, which, both in popular estimation and in that of the most enlightened, are included among the pre cepts of justice. In one point of view, they may be considered as corollaries from the principles already laid down. If it is a duty to do to each according to his deserts, returning good for good as well as repress ing evil by evil, it necessarily follows that we should treat all equally well (when no higher duty forbids) who have deserved equally well of us, and that society should treat all equally well who have deserved equally well of it, that is, who have deserved equally well absolutely. This is the highest abstract stan dard of social and distributive justice ; towards which all institutions, and the efforts of all virtuous citizens, should be made in the utmost possible degree to con verge. But this great moral duty rests upon a still deeper foundation, being a direct emanation from the first principle of morals, and not a mere logical corol lary from secondary or derivative doctrines. It is involved in the very meaning of Utility, or the
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HOW CONNECTED WITH JUSTICE. 93 Greatest-Happiness Principle. That principle is a mere form of words without rational signification, unless one person's happiness, supposed equal in degree (with the proper allowance made for kind), is counted for exactly as much as another's. Those
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