746 principle 6 repeated validation validation occurs

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7.4.6 Principle 6: Repeated Validation Validation occurs at a distinct point in time during the development process and relies on the level of knowledge of the auditors at that point in time. During requirements engineering, the stakeholders gain additional knowledge about the planned system. Therefore, a positive validation of requirements does not guarantee that requirements are still valid at a later point in time. Requirements validation should occur multiple times in the following cases (among others):
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7.5 Requirements Validation Techniques 97 Lots of innovative ideas and technology used in the system Significant gain of knowledge during requirements engineering Long-lasting projects Very early requirements validation Unknown domain Requirements that are to be reused 7.5 Requirements Validation Techniques In the following sections, techniques for requirements validation are intro- duced. Often, manual validation techniques, which are also known by the general term review , are used for requirements validation. Three major types of reviews can be differentiated: Commenting Inspections Walk-throughs Along with reviews, the following three techniques have proven them- selves to be useful for requirements validation: Perspective-based reading Validation through prototypes Using checklists for validation In the following, these six techniques are described. Prior to applying any of these techniques, preparatory steps need to be taken as needed, such as identifying and inviting the right stakeholders or organizing suitable rooms and supplies. 7.5.1 Commenting Individual validation of requirements During commenting, the author hands his or her requirements over to another person (e.g., a co-worker). The goal is to receive the co-worker’s expert opinion with regard to the quality of a requirement. The co-worker reviews the requirement with the goal to identify issues that impair requirement quality (e.g., ambiguity or errors) with respect to predeter- mined quality criteria. The identified flaws are marked in the requirements document and briefly explained.
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98 7 Requirements Validation and Negotiation 7.5.2 Inspection Typical phases of an inspection Inspections of software or any other type of product are done to systemat- ically check development artifacts for errors by applying a strict process [Laitenberger and DeBaud 2000] . An inspection is typically separated into various phases [Gilb and Graham 1993] : planning, overview, defect detection, defect correction, follow-up, and reflection. For requirements validation, the planning, overview, error detection, and error collection phases are relevant (see principle 2, separating the identification and correction of errors in sec- tion 7.4.2 ). Individual preparation is an obligatory part of inspections. An inspection session usually serves the purpose of collecting and evaluating error indications. Occasionally, performing dedicated inspection sessions is omitted when performing inspections.
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