production and increased suppressor T-cells activity • genetic factors ( Mutations in the CARD15 gene) Pathogenesis Lymph node enlarged--------block lymph flow-----oedema, mucosal ulceration (called skipping lesions), abscesses---------- fibrosis/thickening of the bowel wall ----- stenosis of the lumen Serositis develops ------- adherence to other loop --- eventuall y, diseased bowel become: thicker, narrower and shorter
Signs and symptoms • Malaise • Pain in the right lower quadrant or generalized abdominal pain and fever • chronic diarrhoea results from : bile salt malabsorption, loss of healthy intestinal surface area, and bacterial growth. • Stool may be bloody Helpful tests • fecal occult test show minute blood in stools • small bowel X-ray shows irregular mucosa, ulceration • barium enema reveals the string signs (segments of stricture separated by normal bowel), and may show fissures and narrowing of the bowel
•Incidence equal among men and womenHow it happens?
Progression of ulcerative colitis may lead to • intestinal obstruction • dehydration • electrolytes imbalances • malabsorption • chronic anaemia Extent and Symptoms • Ulcerative proctitis: rectal inflammation and ulceration • Proctosigmoiditis: inflammation of rectum & sigmoid colon • Left-sided colitis • Pancolitis: inflammation of entire colon • Fulminant colitis. Recurrent bloody diarrhoea , • usually containing pus and mucus, alternating with symptom-free remissions • cramping abdominal pain, rectal urgency, and diarrhoea • instability, weight loss, weakness, anorexia, nausea
Diagnosis • sigmoidoscopy • colonoscopy • biopsy • barium enema • stool specimen analysis •
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- Fall '19