Description aims to distinguish clinically

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Description aims to: Distinguish clinically significant dysfunction from common human experience Describe prevalence and incidence of disorders
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Clinical Description Describe onset of disorders Acute vs. insidious onset Describe course of disorders Episodic, time-limited, or chronic course Prognosis Good vs. guarded
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Causation & Treatment Etiology What contributes to the development of psychological disorders? Treatment How can we help alleviate psychological suffering? Includes pharmacological, psychosocial, and/or combined treatments
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Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior Major psychological disorders have existed in all cultures and across all time periods Causes and treatment of abnormal behavior vary widely across cultures, time periods, world views
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Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior Three dominant traditions have existed in the past to explain abnormal behavior Supernatural Biological Psychological
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The Supernatural Tradition Prehistoric times Caused by demonic possession Trephination Exorcism
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The Biological Tradition Greco-Roman Period (Biological influence) 500 BC to AD 500 Naturalistic explanations gradually became distinct from supernatural ones Hippocrates (460-377 BC) Saw abnormal behavior as a disease Imbalance of 4 fluids (humors) Proponent of somatogenesis Versus psychogenesis
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The Supernatural Tradition Middle Ages (AD 500-1350) Resurgence of demonological views Growing distrust of science Power of the clergy increased Blamed the devil for hard times Incidence of abnormal behavior increased Outbreaks of mass madness/hysteria E.g., Tarantism Renaissance (1300-1700) Many accused of being witches
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Back to Biology Johann Weyer (1515-1588) 1 st medical practitioner to specialize in mental illness Founder of modern psychopathology Care for mentally ill improved but began to decline again in mid 1500s Hospitals converted to asylums E.g., Bethlehem Hospital E.g., Lunatics Tower
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