Polar covalent bonds electrons are not shared equally partially and partially

Polar covalent bonds electrons are not shared equally

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Polar covalent bonds (electrons are not shared equally, partially + and partially - sides) - 0.5 < Difference in electronegativity < 1.7 - Non-polar bond (electrons are shared equally) - Difference in electronegativity < 0.5 - Lewis Dot Diagram (do practice problems): - Polar bonds are asymmetrical, while non-polar bonds are symmetrical Molecular Polarity: - Draw Lewis Structure of molecule (shown above) - If there are lone pairs (non-shared e- orbiting central atom), the molecule is polar - If not, if the molecule is symmetrical, it is non-polar - Otherwise (the molecule appears asymmetrical), it is polar - Polar: higher boiling point, soluble - Non-polar: lower boiling point, insoluble - Dipole: separation of charge Intermolecular Forces (IMF) Dipole-Dipole: - Type of IMF between polar molecules - Caused by the attraction of partial charge in molecules - Moderately strong London-Dispersion: - Type of IMF between non-polar molecules (can also rarely happen in polar molecules) - Caused by temporary imbalance in charge of molecule - Temporary and weak bond Hydrogen Bonding: - Type of dipole-dipole force involving H bonding with Cl, F, N, O - Very strong bond (why water has such a high boiling point) Water and Hydrogen Bonding:
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- Ice forms from the top of water downwards because of water’s surface tension caused by its hydrogen bonds - Ionic substances are soluble in water since water is polar - Molecules capable of H-Bonding are soluble in water Chemical Reactions: - Synthesis: A + B → AB - Decomposition: AB → A + B - Combustion: - Complete Combustion: CxHy + O2 → CO2 + H2O - Incomplete Combustion: CxHy + O2 → CO2 + H2O + CO/C - Single Displacement: A + BC → AC + B (see activity series) - Double Displacement: AB + CD → AC + BD - Reactants are always soluble - Check solubility rules for reactants - If both are soluble = NR - One must be insoluble - Law of Conservation of Mass: - Matter cannot be created nor destroyed - The total mass of the products in a chemical reaction must equal the total mass of the reactants (balancing equations) Unit 3 - Stoichiometry Definitions: Stoichiometry: The method used to determine quantitative amounts in a chemical reaction Moles: A quantity of something (similar to a dozen) equal to 6.02x10^23 Molar Mass: The mass of 1 mol of any element or compound Avogadro’s Constant: The number of atoms, formula units., molecules, or ions in 1 mol of any substance Empirical Formula: Chemical formula using the simplest whole number ratios between the elements based Mole Ratios: Ratio between the number of moles of two or more elements or compounds Hydrate: An ionic compound that contains water molecules in its structure
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Anhydrate: The substance that remains after the water is removed from a hydrate Limiting Reagent: Reactant that is completely used up in a chemical reaction Excess Reagent: Reactant that is left over after a chemical reaction Percent Yield: Percent of theoretical yield (calculated with stoichiometry) is produced after a chemical reaction. (Actual yield is always less than the theoretical yield since trace amounts of substances could go unaccounted for during experiments)
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