carry ammunition for only a few seconds of gun firing. For ground attack aircraft, the guns are used more often, and would be used against a variety of targets from tanks to trucks to trenches. Some aircraft cannon use special ammunition which is very effective against armour. AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS 33.4.11-10 Aircraft Guns (cannon)
27. Rockets are unguided (ballistic) weapons, often fired several at a time (salvos), against ground targets. Because they are unguided, they must be used at fairly short range, but can be very effective against unarmoured vehicles and ground installations. ASMs and Bombs 28. Air-to-surface missiles are very specialised weapons, and their design depends on the target they are intended to engage. Anti-armour weapons have warheads which are designed to penetrate great thicknesses of armour plating, even reactive armour (which explodes when attacked to deflect the effects of the warhead). Anti-radar weapons home in on radar installations and defeat them by destroying the antenna, using a shower of small fragments of shrapnel. Anti-ship weapons skim close to the surface of the sea, to delay their detection by the target. 33.4.11-11 CHAPTER 11 Aircraft rockets Fig 11-9 Pod for Unguided Rockets Fig 11-10 Air-Launched Anti-Radar Missiles (ALARM)
They are often able to ‘see’ the target in great detail, and identify a range of possible targets by comparing an image with images stored in a computer memory. It can be programmed to engage certain targets in preference to others, which means it may even fly past or over some ships to reach more important ones. 29. A special kind of ASM is the cruise missile. This is a very long range missile (often over 100 km), which is programmed to navigate and fly using ground mapping terrain following, in a similar way that you or I might follow a map. They are extremely accurate, to within metres after a long flight. Cruise missiles are not just carried on aircraft - they may be launched from ships or land vehicles as well. 30. There is a wide range of bombs available, to perform a variety of different tasks. The simple high-explosive type can be used for many purposes, and comes in a range of sizes. A variation of this is used to penetrate great depths of concrete. Cluster bombs have a large number of small bomblets, which are scattered over a wide area after the bomb is released. Retarded bombs have a small parachute which slows the bomb down rapidly. This allows the bomb to be dropped very accurately from low altitude without risk to the aircraft. AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS 33.4.11-12 Fig 11-11 Sea Eagle Anti-Ship Missile Cruise Missile Cluster bombs
33.4.11-13 CHAPTER 11 Self Assessment Questions 1. What is used in hydraulic systems to transmit pressure? 2. What do pneumatic systems use to create pressure? 3. How do you control the hunidity or moisture content of air in an aircraft? 4. How do you maintain a constant-speed drive in an aircraft electrical generator?
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- Summer '18