b. There was more fairness in local governing.3. The majority of state and local black officeholders were former slaves.C. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags1. Carpetbaggers were northern-born white Republicans who often held political office inthe South.2. Scalawags were southern-born white Republicans.a. Some were wealthy (e.g., James Alcorn, a Mississippi planter).b. Most had been upcountry non-slaveholders before the Civil War, and some had been Unionists during the war.3. A small group of scalawags helped swing some state and local elections for Republicans.D. Southern Republicans in Power1. Southern Republican governments established the South's first state-supported public schools.2. The new governments also pioneered civil rights legislation.3. Republican governments took steps to strengthen the position of rural laborers and to promote the South's economic recovery.E. The Quest for Prosperity1. During Reconstruction, every state helped to finance railroad construction.a. They saw this as key to economic development in the region.b. But economic development was weak.2. Investment opportunities in the West lured more northern investors than southern investors, and economic development remained weak in the South.3. More success was found with local biracial governing.V. The Overthrow of ReconstructionA. Reconstruction's Opponents1. Corruption did exist during Reconstruction, but it was not confined to a race, region, orparty.2. Opponents could not accept the idea of former slaves voting, holding office, and enjoying equality before the law.