Social influences also affect adult smoking and ei

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Social influences also affect adult smoking and ei- .ther sustain people's smoking or encourage them toquit. Smoking clusters in socialnetworks, almostasaninfectious disease might (Christakis&Fowler, 2008).Although smoking has declined overall, clustersofsmokers who know each other increase the likelihoodthat a friend or relativewill continuetosmoke. Thegood newsisthat these geographic clusters alsoappearto spread quitting: The likelihood thatsomeone willstop smoking increasesby two-thirdsiftheir spouse hasstopped smoking,by 25 percentifa sibling has quit, andby36percentifafriendhasquit. Even smoking cessa-tion by a coworker decreases the likelihood that one willcontinue to smokeby34 percent. Smoking, likesomany other risky behaviors, spreads through social ties(Christakis&Fowler, 2008).Self-IdentityandSmokingThe imageofone'sselfisa significant factor in beginning smoking (Hertel& Mermelstein, 2012). Teenagers whose ideal self-imageisclose to thatofa typical smoker are most likely tosmoke (Barton, Chassin, Presson, & Sherman, 1982).Low self-esteem, dependency, feelingsofpowerlessness,and social isolationall increase the tendency to imitateothers' behavior, and smoking is no exception (Ennett&Bauman, 1993).Feelingsofbeing hassled, angry, orsad increasethe likelihoodofsmoking (Whalen, Jamner,Henker,&Delfino, 2001;Wills,Sandy,&Yaeger,2002). Feelingsofself-efficacy and good self-controlskills help adolescentsresist temptationstosmoke (Willseta!., 2010). Self-identityisalso important for stoppingsmoking. Identifying oneselfasa smoker impedes theability to quit smoking, whereas identifying oneselfasa quitter can promote it (Van den Putte, Yzer,Willemson, & de Bruijn, 2009).
Nicot in eAddictionandSmokin gSmokingisan addiction, reported to be harder to stopthan heroin addictionoralcoholism (see Table 5.8).Only so-called chippers are able to smoke casually withoutshowing signsofaddiction (Shiffman,Kassel,Paty,Gnys,&Zettler-Segal,1994).However, the exact mechanismsunderlying nicotine addiction are unknown (Grunberg&Acri,1991).People smoketomaintain bloodlevelsofnicotineand to prevent withdrawal symptoms.Inessence, smok-ing regulates the levelofnicotine in the body, and whenplasmalevelsofnicotine depart from the ideal levels,smoking occurs. Nicotine alterslevelsofneuroregula-rors, including acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopa-mine, endogenous opioids,andvasopressin. Nicotinemaybeused by smokers to engage these neuroregulatorsbecause they produce temporary improvements in per-formance or affect. Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, andvasopressin appeartoenhance memory,andacetylcho-line and beta endorphins can reduce anxiety and tension.Alterationsindopamine, norepinephrine,andopioidsimprove mood. Smokingamonghabitual smokersimproves concentration, recall, alertness, arousal, psy-chomotor performance,andthe abilityroscreenoutirrelevant stimuli,andconsequentlysmokingcanimprove performance.Habitual smokers who stop

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Term
Fall
Professor
Jane Smith
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