Literature review: reviewing scholarly studies relevant to subject • See what has been done before • Locate any gaps in the research • Literature review is important for establishing where you research fits in Step 3: Formulating the Hypothesis/Thesis • Hypothesis: speculative statement about relationship between two or more factors known as variables • Variable: measurable trait subject to change under different conditions ->Ex. age, sex, race and gender ->2 types of variables *Independent: manipulated variable *Dependent: responding variable Causation vs. Correlation • It is important to distinguish between a cause of something and a correlation of something g • Causation : the inference that at least 2 variables are directly related • A casual relationship implies: 1. The independent variable precedes the dependent variable 2. That a change in the independent variable will lead to a consistent, predictable change in the dependent variable • Correlation : a relationship that exists when at least two variables are associated/related to one another ->Ex. a factor that is statistically associated with crime, not necessarily a direct cause • The correlation can occur either BEFORE or AFTER (UNCLEAR!) • Causations requires: *Correlation *A theory linking the variables • Casual Logic: Involves relationships between a variable and a particular consequence • Correlation : A relationship by which two or more variables change together (but you are not clear which causes what!) • Spurious Correlation : An apparent, though false, relationship between two or more variables caused by some other variables Step Four: Sampling • Selecting the sample • Sample : selection form a larger population that is statistically typical of that population
• Random Sample : when every member of an entire population has the same chance of being selected Step Five: Collecting and Analyzing Data • Must ensure validity and reliability 1. Validity : degree to which a measure truly reflects the phenomenon being studied 2. Reliability : extent to which a measure provides consistent results
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- Fall '13
- Sociology, Qualitative Research