In architectural terms this meant the evocative suggestion available through

In architectural terms this meant the evocative

This preview shows page 135 - 137 out of 280 pages.

experiences of the sublime and the picturesque. In architectural terms, this meant the evocative suggestion available through historical style. Piranesi had opened the way to stylistic diversity, and in the nineteenth century architects explored the implications. Classicism, which had enjoyed the preeminence of imperial instrumentalization, lost its authority, but was not replaced outright. Instead, a plurality of historical material, an eclecticism, was brought forth as a philosophical proposition, a synthesis of the best of all precedents in an effort to regenerate creativity in architecture. The theory of eclecticism resonated in Italy on a political level during the Restoration.Vincenzo Gioberti in his Primato morale e civile degli Italiani of 1843 extolled the superiority of Italian cultures, which he emphasized in the plural. He broadened the cultural basis of Italian national identity from the classic to include also the early Christian. Leopoldo Cicognara focused in his Storia della scultura from the Middle Ages to the present on the growth of national consciousness through the arts, but the absence of a patria , fatherland, or a single nazione , or birthplace, among the Italians of the twelfth century, remarks the author, had caused disunity and weakness, and had rendered them vulnerable to subjection to foreign interests. Napoleon had said as much regarding the art of nations, but the restored Austrian censors denied Cicognara permission for a second edition of his inflammatory remarks. But the progress toward a national identity paralleled artistic developments. What courses through Italy of the ninteenth century and is exemplified in the work of Giuseppe Jappelli is a search for a new architecture expressive of contemporary progress and aspiration. There were many questions to ask, yet there were few certain answers.The arrival of industrial change challenged the old order. Railroad tracks were laid across Caserta’s noble axis.Archeological digs cleared the ground of Piranesi’s vedute .A disconcerting dichotomy between scientific progress and artistic tradition became evident.There were new materials, new building types, new functions for art, diversified methods of construction, and new roles for the architect to fill. Jappelli was the era’s pioneer. 135 the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900
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villa rivalry: the borghese and the torlonia of rome After the Napoleonic interlude, Pius VII was restored to his capital on 24 May 1815. Pius continued construction of the Piazza del Popolo and the Vatican Braccio Nuovo, but the recent vicissitudes had left the state of private architecture impoverished. Palazzo Braschi was stripped and rented out,Villa Borghese depleted and forsaken by its heirs. Prince Camillo Borghese was coaxed back to Rome with the prospect of taking up his father’s passion for the villa gardens and maintaining the Borghese tradition of keeping their villa open to the public. By 1820 some neighboring properties were purchased and Camillo’s interest was sparked by a set of drawings commissioned of a young architect, Luigi Canina. Canina had studied
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  • Spring '17
  • Archt. De Veyra

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