The problems of achiev ing rationality in pubtic poticy are also discussed in

The problems of achiev ing rationality in pubtic

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The problems of achiev- ing rationality in pubtic poticy are also discussed in Chapter 7, 'rWelfare: The Search for Rational Stntegies," and in Chapter 8, "Health Care: Attempting a Rationat-Com prehensjve Tnnsformation." required to know all possible policy altematives and the consequences of each, including the cost of information gathering, the availabiliry of the information, and the time involved in its collection. Neither the predictive capacities of the social and behavioral sciences nor those of the physical and biological sciences are suffrciently advanced to enable policymakers to understand the full benefits or costs of each policy altemative. Policymakers, even with the most advanced computerized analytical techniques, do not have sufficient intelligence to calculate accurately costs and benefits when a large number of diverse political, social, economic, and cultural values are at stake. Uncertainry about the consequences of various policy altematives compels policymakers to sdck as closely as possible to previous policies to reduce the likelihood of unanticipated negative consequences. The segmentalized naure of policymaking in large bureaucracies makes it difficult to coordinate decision making so that the input of all the various specialists is brought to bear at the point of decision.
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Incrementatism: Poliry as Variations on the past INCREMENTALISM: POLICY AS VARIATIONS ON THE PAST Incrementalism views public policy as a continuation of past govemment activities with only incre- mental modifications. Political scientist Charles E. Lindblom first presented the incremental model in the course of a critique of the rational model of decision making.l According to Lindblom, decision makers do not annually review the whole range of existing and proposed policies, identify societal goals, research the benefits and costs of altemative policies in achieving these goals, rank order of preferences for each policy altemative in terms of the maximum net benefits, and then make a selection on the basis of all relevant information. On the contrary, constraints of time, information, and cost prevent policymakers from identifying the full range of policy altematives and their consequences. Constraints of politics prevent the establishment of clear.cut societal goals and the accurate calculation of costs and benefits. The incremental model recognizes the impractical nature of "rational-comprehensive" policymaking, and describes a more conservative process of decision making.
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  • Fall '19
  • Prof. Madya Dr. Norhayati Binti Daud

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